Bolsheviks & the Civil War- Russia 1917 24

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Steph
  • Created on: 04-05-13 08:16
Preview of Bolsheviks & the Civil War- Russia 1917 24

First 586 words of the document:

The course of the Civil War
The Bolsheviks wanted to run Russia as a one party state and had alienated all other
socialist groups.
Bolsheviks vs. Everyone else
Hostilities sparked off in the East in the `Czech Legion' this region wanted to fight with the Russian
army against the Austrians and Germans but after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, this was no longer
possible. The Bolsheviks and Czechs clashed and they ended up taking a large section of the
Trans-Siberian railway and a large part of Western Siberia.
the Czech Legion became the focus for white opposition. It represented the start of the
civil ware. It gave all the people that were unhappy with the Treaty of Breast-Litovsk confidence. It
brought out the other elements of opposition.
Attacks:
1) Yudenich in the West Small rebellion
2) Kolchack in the East initially successful but failed because of:
a. Red army's counter-attacks
b. Division within the Czechs
c. Power struggles with the Socialist Revolutionaries
3) Denikin & Wrangel in the South Invasion of Tsaritsyn, a key city. Strong attack but even
stronger counter-attack from the Bolsheviks
4) Makhno's Insurgent Army Green army that used Guerilla warfare against whites and
reds & strongly supported by Ukrainian peasants. Bolsheviks eventually crushed them.
Bolsheviks having a form of government had more confidence than its opposition. In addition,
after everything the Bolsheviks had been through they had passions
The civil war had a cause to fight for & didn't want to give it up easily.
Roles of other countries in the Civil War
Allied troops were sent to Russia to help reopen the Eastern front against Germany but when the
war ended, the troops stayed on. .
The British Supported the whites although some British people opposed to Britain's involvement
in the Civil War.
The French economic objectives and were strongly anti-Bolsheviks.
The Japanese wanted to regain land therefore fought the Bolsheviks.
The USA sent in troops to stop the Japanese annexing land
A mixed bag of countries sent in troops to help the whites yet the whites still lost the war.
Foreign help allowed the Bolsheviks to appeal to its people as if they were experiencing a foreign
invasion, turning them against the whites. All the allies managed to do was provide the whites with
supplies.
The Russo-Polish War 1919-21
Poles wanted to take advantage of the chaos of the Russian Civil War.
They wanted to take territory that once belonged to the Polish empire.
The poles were an old enemy, no one wanted them and they were swiftly counter-attacked and
beaten. But, the Reds in Germany had now overstretched their supply lines and lacked support.
The Russians had to surrender large areas of White Russia and the Ukraine to the Poles. Shows that
there is a limit to the Red Army and to its capacity. This was a defeat and may be a reason as to why
Lenin became so oppressive.
The role of Trotsky in the Civil War:
Trotsky was instrumental towards the Red Army's success. He restored discipline and
professionalism & turned it into an effective fighting force. He brought back tsarist officers to train
and command army unites. He held these officers families as hostage to ensure their loyalty.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Repressive actions clear: How much loyalty would this really promote in the long run?
Trotsky's changes:
Bolsheviks hated the return to a traditional army and wanted a militia. Trotsky only got his
way because Lenin supported him & because the situation was so out of hand.
Trotsky attached a political commissar to each army unite and this commissar would watch
and report all officers actions. This was so not to allow the Tsarist influence to return and an
anti-Bolsheviks mentality to not develop.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Banning of private trade private trade and manufactured goods were banned but industry
was not producing enough consumer goods so an enormous black market developed
Nationalization & industry all industries were brought under state control to try and get a grip
of the economy. Not everyone was against this as they were desperate to keep their jobs
Labour discipline discipline was brought back to the work place.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

How was the Bolsheviks state consolidated between 1921 ­ 1924
Negative elements of War Communism:
Transport system had collapsed
o Factories could not get materials they needed
o Industrial factories had stopped producing
o Grain production had fallen
Famine rose
Wide-spread disease
Russian society was no longer willing to put up with the continuation of wartime policy
A key element of war communism was grain requisitioning. But now, Lenin's political survival was
at stake.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Food and goods could flow more easily. Money was back and the black market
was not as big
4. Stock control of heavy industry
5. The state kept control of large-scale heavy industries like coal, steel and oil
Lenin presented NEP as being only a temporary deviation and a tactical retreat to appease the
people. Some party members hated it and rebelled. The party split was only eased with the concept
that NEP was a temporary measure.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

This all resulted in a more authoritarian and centralized Communist party who's members
were less likely to debate issues. Decision making became concentrated in a much smaller
number of hands. The party saw itself as having the exclusive right to lead the people into
the light of socialism.
- But, if the civil war had not happened, Lenin would not have moved as quickly towards
centralization
Direct results of the Civil War:
1. A more centralized government
2. Communist part began to dominate govt.
3.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »