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Biology
Microbiology
Pasteurisation reduction of pathogenic bacteria by heating at 72 degrees for 15 seconds
Sterilization destruction of pathogenic bacteria by heating between 110 and 130 degrees
for 10-30 minutes
Bactericidal antibiotics that kill bacteria directly
Bacteriostatic antibiotics that inhibit the assembly of peptide links in peptidoglycan wall,
causing the…

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Populations
Niche where organism lives and how it feeds
Abiotic factors water, oxygen, light, toxins, pollutants, climate
Biotic factors food availability, predators, parasites, disease, territorial interactions
Density-dependent factors always biotic
Density-independent factors biotic or abiotic
Biotic potential maximum reproductive capacity given no environmental resistance
Carrying capacity maximum number of organisms…

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Nervous system
Reflex actions rapid involuntary responses to stimuli that prevent the body becoming
damaged
RECEPTOR SENSORY NEURONE CNS MOTOR NEURONE EFFECTOR
Relay neurone transmits sensory impulse across spinal chord, not myelinated so speed of
transmission relatively slow, significant for modifying reflex response
Central canal contains cerebrospinal fluid, nourishes and…

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Photosynthesis
Phototropism growth response which allows shots to grow towards light, giving optimum
illumination
Large surface area of leaves held perpendicular to light source allow optimum illumination
Thin leaves light only absorbed by a few cell layers before it is received by photosynthetic
pigments
Leaf mosaic arrangement of leaves minimises…

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Photosynthometers have a fixed light source, of light intensity 1/d2, constant temperature,
hydrogen carbonate solution of known concentration to provide carbon dioxide, aquatic
plant of fixed length, capillary tube to transport gas, syringe to collect gas produced
Chromatography separates components of mixture according to their relative affinities
by passing solvent…

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Light dependent stage of photosynthesis (non-cyclic)
PS2 absorbs photons of light energy and passes it onto primary pigment at reaction centre
causes high energy electrons to be emitted
Electrons reduce electron acceptor, and are then passed down electron transport chain,
finally being accepted by PS1 enough energy released to actively…

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