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Biology Unit 1
Pathogens, Lifestyle and Disease

Disease: the malfunction of part, or whole, of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms

Pathogen: an organism, usually a microorganism, which causes disease

Causes of disease:

Infections ­ caused by pathogens
Non-infectious ­ resulting from your genetics and/or the environment (includes…

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Data Handling

REMEMBER THIS: %change = change x 100

Common question:

1. `Explain the advantage of giving these data as percentages.' 2 marks
Easier to compare if the sample size effectively the same
Different numbers of people in each group

Correlation: shows that there is a relationship between two…

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Site of ATP production from aerobic respiration
Bound by double membrane
o Inner membrane = cristae
Functions to increase SA for attachment of enzymes in respiration
o Within the inner = matrix
Contains proteins, lipids and some DNA

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Continuous with the nuclear membrane
Forms series of enclosed…

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Known as a fluid mosaic model
All cell membranes have the same basic structure, but different proportions of molecules
relating to it's function


Finger like projections
Increase the surface area of the cell membrane


Function in cell division to form a network of spindle fibres
These fibres pull…

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Specimens Living Dead
Cost Low High
Image Colour Black and white ONLY
Wavelength Long Short
Shorter the wavelength, the better the resolution!

Two types of electron microscopes:

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
o Transmits electrons through thin specimen
o Most common form of microscope
o Best resolution
o Produces 2D images…

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Specific phagocytosis

A specific response to a specific antigen on the surface of a cell or pathogen that has
been recognised as non-self

Antigen: a molecule (usually protein) that stimulates an immune response resulting in the production
of specific antibodies

The surfaces of all cells are covered in antigens; they…

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Passive: antibodies are received from elsewhere ­ can be given by a mother or an antiserum
(injection of antibodies)

Active: provided by the memory cells that are produced after a primary immune response to a

Vaccines consist of either dead, weakened or attenuated (low virulence) specific pathogens. The

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Mice are genetically engineered to produce human antibodies
Few cases of human volunteers suffering major and unexpected side effects when testing
the monoclonal antibody

Amino Acids and Proteins

Monomers and Polymers

Monomers: small identical or similar molecules
Polymers: large molecules made from joining many identical or similar monomers together


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Number of peptide bonds will always be one less than the number of amino acids
joined together

Protein Structure


Number and sequence of amino acids (polypeptide chain) which is dictated by
your DNA
Proteins differ from each other because their primary structures are different


Hydrogen bonds (weak) form…

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Enzymes: biological catalysts ­ increase the rate of chemical reaction but remain unchanged by the

Enzymes lower the activation energy needed for chemical reaction
Activation Energy: minimum energy required for a successful chemical
reaction to take place

Enzymes are proteins that have specific complimentary active sites to




Really great notes! I don't suppose you have any for Unit 2?



Really great notes! I don't suppose you have any for Unit 2?

Scarlett Tankard


Thanks! I've not completed my unit2 ones yet, but when I do, I'll be sure to upload them!



AMAZING thanks so much !!



thank you!! could you post unit 2 please?

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