Biology Unit 1.6 Revision Notes (Immunology)

I hope you find these useful!

Basically, I have divided my notes up into parts of the syllabus, so 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 are separate documents, but are all on here.

The part of the syllabus relevant to these notes is on the cover page at the start of the notes.

Sorry for any spelling mistakes or anything :L.

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Principles Phagocytosis and the role of lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes in the subsequent destruction of
ingested pathogens.
Immunology Definition of antigen and antibody.
Antibody structure and the formation of an antigen-antibody complex.
The essential difference between humoral and cellular responses as shown by B cells and T
The role of plasma cells and memory cells in producing a secondary response.
The effects of antigenic variability in the influenza virus and other pathogens on immunity.…read more

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Recognising Cells
Lymphocytes must be able to recognise the body's own cells and chemicals from those which
are foreign
There are about 10 million different lymphocytes, each capable of recognising a different
chemical shape
o In the foetus, these lymphocytes are constantly colliding with other cells
o Infection in the foetus is rare because it is protected by the mother and the placenta
o Lymphocytes will therefore collide almost exclusively with the body's own material
o Some of the lymphocytes will have receptors hat exactly…read more

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Covers exchange surfaces and forms a thick, sticky barrier that is difficult
to penetrate
Trap pathogen and cilia can sweep it up to be swallowed or spat out
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Antigen - A molecule that triggers an immune response by lymphocytes
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T Lymphocytes and T Cells
Mature in the thymus
Cause a cellular response to infection (they do not secrete antibodies into the blood)
They produce a protein that makes holes in the cell-surface membrane of a pathogen causing
it to die
Responds to foreign material inside body cells and to its own altered cells
B Lymphocytes and B Cells
Mature in the bone marrow
Secrete antibodies into the blood
Responds to foreign material outside the body cells and bacteria and viruses
Plasma Cells
o Secrete…read more

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Proteins synthesised by B cells
The specificity of an antibody depends on its
variable regions
o Each antibody has a different shaped
variable region, due to different
amino acid sequences, that is
complimentary to one specific
When an antibody collides with a cell
carrying a non-self antigen that has a
complementary shape, they bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex
Antigenic Variability
Some pathogens can change their surface antigens and this is
called antigenic variation
This means that when you're infected for a second…read more

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Vaccines contain antigens that cause your body to produce memory cells against a particular
The antigens maybe free or attached to a dead or attenuate pathogen
They can be injected or taken orally
o A disadvantage to taking it orally are that it could be broken down by enzymes in the
gut or cannot be absorbed into the blood as the molecules are too large
They can protect the individuals that have them
They also protect those not vaccinate because they reduce the…read more


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