Biology Unit 1.3 Revision Notes (Cells)

I hope you find these useful!

Basically, I have divided my notes up into parts of the syllabus, so 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 are separate documents, but are all on here.

The part of the syllabus relevant to these notes is on the cover page at the start of the notes.

Sorry for any spelling mistakes or anything :L.

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Cells The structure of an epithelial cell from the small intestine as seen with an optical microscope.
The appearance, ultrastructure and function of:
Plasma membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Candidates should be able to apply their knowledge of these features in explaining
adaptations of other eukaryotic cells.
The principles and limitations of transmission and scanning electron microscopes.
The difference between magnification and resolution.
Principles of cell fractionation and ultracentrifugation as used to separate cell components.…read more

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Organelle Diagram Description Function
The membrane found on Regulates the movement
the surface of animal of substances into and
Plasma cells and inside the cell
wall of plant cells and
out of the cell. It also has
receptor molecules,
membrane prokaryotic cells. It is which allow it to respond
made mainly of proteins to chemicals (e.g.
and lipids. hormones).
Chromatin is made from
proteins and DNA (which
Large organelle
controls the cell's
surrounded by nuclear
activities).…read more

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Light Microscope Electron
Transmission Scanning
Radiation Source
Light Electrons
400-700nm (visible light) 0.005nm
Resolution Limit
2µm 0.…read more

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Cell Fractionation and Ultracentrifugation
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Plasma Glycerol and fatty acids combine by condensation to produce triglycerides.
Membranes The R-group of a fatty acid may be saturated or unsaturated. In phospholipids, one of the fatty
acids of a triglyceride is substituted by a phosphate group.
The emulsion test for lipids.
The arrangement of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates in the fluid-mosaic model of
membrane structure.
The role of the microvilli in increasing the surface area of cell-surface membranes.…read more

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Fatty Acids can be Saturated or Unsaturated
The Properties of Lipids
Property Why is it useful?
Don't want them to break down
Doesn't affect water potential
Good storage molecule
High proportion of Large amount of energy
Poor thermal Insulation
Waterproof covering i.e.…read more

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Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides except that one of the fatty acid molecules is
replaced by a phosphate group
The phosphate group is hydrophilic (`water loving') and the fatty acid tails are
hydrophobic (`water hating')
Emulsion Test for lipids
1. Shake the test substance with ethanol for about a minute, and then pour the
solution into water.
2.…read more


Madi Thorne

These are amazing, good work!

Eve B

These notes are great thank you! Do you have any for unit 2?

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