Biology Unit 1.3 Revision Notes (Cells)

I hope you find these useful!

Basically, I have divided my notes up into parts of the syllabus, so 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 are separate documents, but are all on here.

The part of the syllabus relevant to these notes is on the cover page at the start of the notes.

Sorry for any spelling mistakes or anything :L.

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Cells The structure of an epithelial cell from the small intestine as seen with an optical microscope.

The appearance, ultrastructure and function of:

Plasma membrane
Microvilli
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus


Candidates should be able to apply their knowledge of these features in explaining
adaptations of other…

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Organelle Diagram Description Function
The membrane found on Regulates the movement
the surface of animal of substances into and
Plasma cells and inside the cell
wall of plant cells and
out of the cell. It also has
receptor molecules,
membrane prokaryotic cells. It is which allow it to respond
made…

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Organelles




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Microscopes


Light Microscope Electron
Transmission Scanning

(TEM) (SEM)
Radiation Source
Light Electrons

Wavelength
400-700nm (visible light) 0.005nm

Resolution Limit
2µm 0.001µm
Electromagn
Lenses Glass
etic
Maximum
1500x 500,000x
Magnification

(prevent air
Vacuum
scattering
electrons)
Must be
Specimen Living or dead
dead
Specimen
Thin Thin Any
Thickness


Stains (heavy
(for some)…

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Picture




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Cell Fractionation and Ultracentrifugation




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Plasma Glycerol and fatty acids combine by condensation to produce triglycerides.
Membranes The R-group of a fatty acid may be saturated or unsaturated. In phospholipids, one of the fatty
acids of a triglyceride is substituted by a phosphate group.

The emulsion test for lipids.

The arrangement of phospholipids, proteins and…

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Fatty Acids can be Saturated or Unsaturated




The Properties of Lipids

Property Why is it useful?
Don't want them to break down
Doesn't affect water potential
Insoluble
Good storage molecule

High proportion of Large amount of energy
H+
Poor thermal Insulation
conductor
Waterproof covering i.e. on waxy cuticle on
Hydrophobic…

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Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides except that one of the fatty acid molecules is
replaced by a phosphate group
The phosphate group is hydrophilic (`water loving') and the fatty acid tails are
hydrophobic (`water hating')



Emulsion Test for lipids

1. Shake the test substance with ethanol for about a minute,…

Comments

Madi Thorne

These are amazing, good work!

Eve B

These notes are great thank you! Do you have any for unit 2?

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