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Pathogens Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi.

Disease can result from pathogenic microorganisms penetrating any of an organism's interfaces
with the environment. These interfaces include the digestive and gas-exchange systems.

Pathogens cause disease by damaging the cells of the host and by producing toxins.


Pathogens are disease causing organisms…

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t If you eat or drink food that contains pathogens, most of
i them will be killed by the acidic conditions of the stomach
v However, some may survive and pass into the intestines
e where they can invade cells of the gut wall and…

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Lifestyle Lifestyle can affect human health.

Specific risk factors are associated with cancer and coronary heart disease.

Changes in lifestyle may also be associated with a reduced risk of contracting these conditions.

Candidates should be able to:
Analyse and interpret data associated with specific risk factors and the incidence of…

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Lifestyle Changes

There are measures that we can all take to reduce the risk of getting cancer and coronary heart
diseases. Changing your lifestyle doesn't eliminate the chances of getting these diseases, but it can
affect the risks.

Some things that can be done to reduce risks include:

Not smoking…


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