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Biology 2011 Revision
Patrick Woodcock…read more

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· All Animal and Plant Cells contain a nucleus, a cytoplasm and a cell
membrane. Plant cells have extra parts like a cell wall, a permanent
vacuole, chloroplasts, ribosome's and a mitochondria.
· Nucleus: contains all the genetic information of the cells and controls it's activities.
· Cytoplasm: where all the chemical reactions happen, controlled by enzymes
· Cell Membrane: controls what goes in and out of the cell
· Cell Wall: strengthens and supports the cell
· Vacuole: contains Cell Sap that keeps the cell turgid
· Chloroplasts: Take in light energy to be used for photosynthesis
· Ribosomes: Protein synthesis happens here
· Mitochondria: Energy is released here through resperation
· Cells may be shaped to perform a particular function.…read more

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Cell Divison- MEITOSIS
o Cells can divide by mitosis. This is used for growth and repair. The process is this :
o A parent cell
o The chromosomes replicate themselves
o They join together at the centre
o They move away to the sides of the cell
o The cell splits
o The two daughter cells are identical to each other and the parent cell.
Ferlitilization and Gametes
Fertilization happens when a male gamete fuses with a female gamete to produce a
cell that will eventually divide so many times by meitosis to form a zygote. A
gamete is made by another cell division process known as meiosis.…read more

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Cell Diviosion- MEIOSIS
· This cell division creates gametes ( sperm and eggs)
· Parent Cell
· Chromosomes make replicas of themselves
· Similar chromosomes join together
· DNA from the different chromosomes is swapped
· The cell divides to form 2 daughter cells
· These daughter cells divide again to create 2 new daughter
cells each.
They have half the chromosones of a normal body cell ( i.e
gametes have 23 single chromosones)…read more

Slide 5

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The chromonsones are found in the nucleus of the cell and
contain the genetic information. They are formed from long
DNA molecules.
Genes are a basic part of genetic material that is inherited from
our parents that controls a cells chemistry particuarly protein
production. It also controls the order in which amino acids are
joined together.
DNA is material inside the nucleus of a cell that holds the genetic
information for living things.

Slide 6

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· = THE MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES from a area of high concentration to an
area of low concentration.
· Dissolved substances have to pass in or out of a cells membrane, and
diffusion allows this to happen.
· It can only happen in gas particles and in dissolved substances
· An example of this is diffusion in the lungs in which oxygen particles are
diffused from the alveolar air space into the blood stream. The blood will
always take in oxygen as long as the concentration of oxygen is higher
than than the concentration of the blood.
· It is going up the concentration gradient .…read more

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