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Plants use energy from sunlight to build up carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds such
as glucose. This process is photosynthesis.

Energy from sunlight is transferred into chemical energy in the new compounds.

Autotrophs ­ living things that can make their own…

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Storing energy in starch molecules

Photosynthesis sometimes produces glucose faster than the plant needs. This extra glucose is
converted to starch and stored.

Releasing energy in respiration

Glucose is broken down and the stored energy in the molecules is released.

Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY

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During summer, stomata close to prevent water diffusing out of the leaves and
this also reduces CO2 diffusing into the leaf.

At 0.04%, more light increases the rate of reaction up to a point until light is no
longer the limiting factor. Increasing CO2 level to 0.4% makes the rate…

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Pyramid of biomass ­ shows the mass of organisms at each feeding level and how much food is
available to the next level.

When pyramids are a different shape

Some organisms are only present in the ecosystem for part of the year
Other organisms in an ecosystem may be eaten…

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They can be transferred by:
through the nose, mouth,, anus and genital and urinary tracts
insect bites
burrowing under the skin


Lives in the human gut ­ up to 9m long
Competes with the host for digested food
It does not enter the host's body tissues so symptoms…

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The parasites have different markers on their cells at every stage of their life cycle. This makes it
hard for white blood cells to identify and attack them so they are protected from the immune
When one red blood cell is used up the parasites burst out and infects…

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It causes the milk they feed on to lump together. This slows the food down as it passes though the
gut, giving enzymes more time to digest the food and for molecules to be absorbed.

Growing microorganisms for food

Microbial cells contain carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Some MOs provide a…

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The bacteria that survive must have the plasmid so they will also make insulin

Large genes are too big to fit into plasmids. So bacteria are infected by viruses called
bacteriophages. These are used to carry larger genes but they are disabled before they used for


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Plasma is mainly water. It is a pale yellow fluid. It carries dissolved materials such as food
molecules, hormones, waste product and distributes heat around the body.

Red blood cells

They are made in bone marrows. 10% of CO2 is in the red blood cell in the form of carbonate.…

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Donor anti a and anti b antib antia none

antia and antib




If the wrong blood type is given then the red blood cells will clot together in the bloodstream. These
clots can block blood vessels stopping oxygen and glucose supply.

Agglutination ­…


Nizbizzzz :)


hey thank you so much for these fantastic notes like this for chemistry? thank you again!

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