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Module 2.1: Biological Molecules
State the functions of biological molecules in organisms
Carbohydrates ­ energy storage and supply, structure (in some organisms)
Proteins ­ Structure, transport, enzymes, antibodies, most hormones
Lipids ­ Membranes, energy supply, thermal insulation, protective layers/padding, electrical insulation in
neurones, some hormones
Vitamins and minerals ­ From…

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Describe the formation and breakage of glycosidic bonds in the synthesis and hydrolysis of a
disaccharide.
A condensation reaction joins to monosaccharides together to form a disaccharide molecule. A
covalent bonds called a glycosidic bond is formed. Water breaks the glycosidic bond in a hydrolysis
reaction. A H and OH…

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They are both energy storage molecules. They don't dissolve so the molecules don't affect water
potential of the cell. They hold glucose in their chains which can be broken off and used to provide
glucose for respiration.



Explain how the structure of cellulose relates to its function in living organisms.…

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Further folding of the secondary structure and 3D shape is formed. Hormones rely on 3D shape for
receptor molecules. Can be structural. Disulfide bonds have a very strong covalent bond. Ionic bonds
are strong when oppositely charged amino acids are next to each other. Hydrogen bonds are found
whenever charged…

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are all examples of lipids. Fatty acids consist of a hydrocarbon chain and an acid group. They can be
unsaturated or saturated. Many saturated fats are solid (animal lipids ­ lard) and many unsaturated fats
are liquid like oils. Triglycerides are a glycerol molecules bonded to 3 fatty acid molecules.…

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Property Importance Examples

Solvent Metabolic processes depend on 70-95% of cytoplasm is water.
chemicals being able to react in Dissolved chemicals take part in
a solution processes like reparation and
photosynthesis in living
organisms.

Liquid Movement of materials around Blood in aminals and vascular
organisms, in calls and in tissues…

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sodium carbonate solution;
repeat Benedict's test.

Protein Add biuret reagent Blue to lilac

Lipid Add ethanol to extract (dissolve) White emulsion forms near top
lipid and pour alcohol into water of water.
in another test tube


Describe how the concentration of glucose in a solution may be estimated by using…

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formed between the phosphate of one nucleotide to another to make a backbone. This is
semi-conservative replication.

State that a gene is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a polypeptide
DNA is a sequence of nucleotides which contain the instructions to code for the amino acids in a…

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complex is when the reaction has taken place and the products are formed which are complementary in
shape to the active site.

Describe how enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction.
They lower the activation energy needed because the active site induces a fit to the substrate molecule
which…

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Cofactores are substances which ensure that enzyme-controlled reactions take place at an appropriate
rate. A type of cofactor is an enzyme.
Conenzymes are organic, non-protein molecules which are not permanent and bond to the active site.
They can bind before or at the same time as the substrate molecule. They…

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