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Jack Wilson 12WT


F212 Notes ­ From the Specification.

Biological Molecules:
Biological Molecules

Describe how hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules, and relate this, and other
properties of water, to the roles of water in living organisms

A hydrogen bond is formed due to the partial charges (+/- )…

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Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid

An amino acid monomer consists of an amine group, a carboxylic acid group
and a carbon group in the middle which links to the R-Group (any alkyl group
to make the specific amino acid). Key amino acids ­…

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Explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term quaternary structure, with reference to the structure
of haemoglobin

Quaternary structure is only used to describe a protein which has more than one polypeptide chain.
The quaternary structure is the way which the polypeptide chains are assembled together, which
tends to be…

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The structural difference between -glucose and -glucose is where the OH group on carbon-1
resides. In -glucose it is above the plane, whereas in -glucose it is below the plane. This is only for
carbon-1 ­ all of the other OH groups remain in the same position.

Describe, with the…

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Explain how the structures of glucose, starch (amylose), glycogen and cellulose molecules
relate to their functions in living organisms

Glucose: Small. Easily broken down and harnessed as energy in the form as ATP.
Starch: Large molecule. Good for storage. Straight chains and branches. Branches can be picked off.
Glycogen: Large.…

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Comparing solutions with a colorimeter:
Photoelectric cell picks up light that has passed through the sample.
Place the solution in a sample chamber between the light and photoelectric cell in a cuvette.
The more copper sulphate that is used up in a Benedict's test, the less light will be blocked…

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Outline, with the aid of diagrams, how DNA replicates semi-conservatively, with reference to
the role of DNA polymerase

Hydrogen bonds between two DNA strands break. The double helix unzips and forms two single
strands. Each original strand now acts as a template for a new strand. Free floating DNA nucleotides…

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Secondly, if an enzyme is catalysing a breakdown reaction, fitting into an active site puts a strain on
the bonds within the substrate. This strain means that the substrate molecule breaks up easier.

The `lock and key model'
This model states that a substrate fits into an enzyme the same…

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To investigate the mentioned effects, you must keep everything else constant.

pH: Kept constant through the use of pH buffers, which maintain pH at a set level by keeping the H
ions in a solution constant. This is done because pH affects reaction rate by changing the shape of the…

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Interfere with metabolic reactions which can cause damage, illness or death. Often are enzyme
inhibitors. An enzyme of which being cyanide, a non-competitive inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase
which is an enzyme which catalyses respiration reaction.

State that some medicinal drugs work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes

Drugs work…


Georgia Danielle


These are really, really good notes!! Thank you for putting them on here, they are fantastic as a final run through of everything.

Asha Ibrahim



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