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Carbohydrates:
What are they used for?
· Energy source ­ during respiration
· Energy store ­ eg. Starch
· Structure ­ eg,. Cellulose
· They also form parts of larger molecules
like glycolipids and nucleic acid.
They make up 10% of organic matter of
cell.…read more

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Simple Sugars:
The simplest sugars are called Monosaccharides. All
larger carbohydrates are formed from Monosaccharides.
There are a number of different Monosaccharides but all
are soluble in water, are sweet tasting and form crystals.
They are grouped depending on the number of carbon
atoms in the molecule.
· 3 Carbon monosaccharides ­ triose sugars
· 5 Carbon monosaccharides ­ pentose sugars
· 6 Carbon monosaccharides - hexose sugars
Hexoses are the most common monosaccharides and
examples include Glucose and Fructose
Pentoses and Hexoses occur naturally as ring structures.…read more

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The Two Types of Glucose
These are isomers of each other and they have different properties
and used to produce different structures.
Animals and plants only have enzymes that break down Glucose.
They cannot break down Glucose due to its different
arrangement of H and OH at Carbon 1. This is why only Glucose
is used for respiration.…read more

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Joining Monosaccharides
This is called a
Condensation reaction
as water is eliminated.
The bond between the
two glucose is called a
Glycosidic Bond and
the molecule is now
called a Disaccharide.
When lots of
monosaccharides are
joined together in this
manner, the new
molecule is called a
Polysaccharide.…read more

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Splitting Disaccharides
The reverse of a
condensation
reaction is called
Hydrolysis.
Water is used to
break the
glycosidic bond
and two
monosaccharides
are produced…read more

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