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Property Reason Relation to Structure and Function
Hydrogen The negatively charged ·Hydrogen bonds give water a high specific heat capacity, it
Bonding oxygen atoms of water takes a lot of energy to heat it up
attract the positively ·This is useful for organisms because it stops rapid temperature
charged hydrogen changes
atoms of other water ·Hydrogen bonds also give water a high latent heat of
molecules. evaporation, a lot of energy is used up when water evaporates,
this is good as it helps animals cool down.
·Hydrogen bonding also causes water to be less dense than ice,
because the hydrogen bonds become rigid forming an open
crystalline structure when frozen. Many animals for example
polar pairs live on floating ice.
Polarity Water molecules are ·Water is a good solvent because ionic substances can form
made of positive ionic interactions with water molecules. Most biological reacts
hydrogen atoms and take place in solution.
electronegative oxygen ·Polarity also makes water very cohesive (they stick together).
atoms. This makes This helps water to flow making it great for transporting
water a polar molecule. substances…read more

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Carbohydrates; Monosaccharides and
Isomerism of Glucose molecules
General Formula; CnH2nOn
If n=3, triose
If n=5, pentose (fructose, ribose)
If n=6, hexose (glucose, galactose)
Glucose Glucose
In condensation reactions two monosaccharide's are joined to form a disaccharide
molecule, H2O is produced. Either a 1-4 Glycosidic bond or a 1-6 Glycosidic bond
is formed. Hydrolysis is the opposite of a condensation reaction, water is added
and a glycosidic bond is broken
Glucose + Glucose Maltose +
Glucose + Galactose Lactose +
Glucose + Fructose Sucrose +
Water…read more

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Polysaccharide Structure Function
Starch Consists of long, spiral chain Insoluble store of
Amylose molecules made of a glucose in plants
Glucose with 1-4 Glycosidic
bonds and branched
Amylopectin molecules also
made of a Glucose with 1-4
glycosidic bonds and 1-6
glycosidic bonds.
Glycogen Made -glucose units With 1,4 Insoluble, highly
and 1,6 glycosidic bonds branched, compact store
of glucose in animals
Cellulose Made of -glucose with 1,4 Structural
glycosidic bonds and Hydrogen polysaccharide in plants.
bonds link adjacent chains Insoluble, very strong. It
makes up cell walls…read more

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Carbohydrates…read more

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Proteins are made of Amino acids joined
by peptide bonds made in a condensation
reaction. Two amino acids make a
dipeptide, Many joined amino acids make
a poly peptide
Function of proteins
·Structural components e.g. muscle &
· Membrane carriers used in active
transport and facilitated diffusion
·All enzymes are proteins
·Many hormones are proteins
·Antibodies are proteins
·Haemoglobin is a protein…read more

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