Biological molecules AQA AS Biology PART 1 OF 8 TOPICS: Carbohydrates

An AQA summary based on the specification at your hands and in black and white so that you can personalise it to whatever your heart desires!

This document is a quick summary on all that you need to know about carbohydrates including monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides and tests for reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch.

NB: Dont get confused if a glucosidic bond is referred to as 1,4 alpha glycosidic bond for example. This means that the glycosidic bond is between carbon number 1 of one glucose molecule and carbon number 4 on another glucose molecule with both glucose molecules being alpha.


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Biological molecules (AQA AS Biology) PART 1 of 8 TOPICS

Monosaccharides are the monomers from which larger carbohydrates are made. These include
glucose, fructose and galactose. Only the
structure of glucose needs to be known for the
whole of a level which is illustrated as follows
on either side.…

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Blue to brick red precipitate

Non-reducing sugar (sucrose):

Add HCl (hydrochloric acid) and boil
Add NaOH (sodium hydroxide) to neutralise
Add Benedict's reagent
Blue to brick red precipitate


Add Iodine Potassium solution
Blue-black colourisation


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