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1. The diagram shows a cell from a potato.
i) Give two features which may be found in a prokaryotic cell which would not be found in this cell. (2 marks)
ii) Describe how you could confirm that the granules contained starch. (2 marks)
iii) Name one polysaccharide other than starch that would be found in this cell. (1 mark)
iv) Explain one advantage of storing starch rather than glucose in potato cells. (2 marks)
2. The diagram shows an organelle from a palisade mesophyll cell, as seen with an electron microscope.
i) Name the organelle and the part labeled X. (2 marks)
ii) Calculate the maximum length of the organelle in micrometers. (2 marks)
iii) Give two ways in which the structure of this organelle is adapted for its function. (2 marks)
3. The diagram shows one end of a cellulose molecule.
i) Name the monomers that form a cellulose molecule. (1 mark)
ii) Name bond Y. (1 mark)
iii) What chemical group is at position Z? (1 mark)
iv) Cotton is a plant fibre used to make cloth. Explain how cellulose gives cotton its strength. (2 marks)
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There is less oxygen at high altitudes than at sea level.
i) People living at high altitudes have more red blood cells than people living at sea level. Explain the advantage of
this to people living at high altitude. (2 marks)
ii) The graph shows O2 dissociation curves for people living at high altitude & for people living at sea level.
Explain the advantage to people living at high altitude of having the oxygen dissociation curve shown. (2 marks)
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A small population of oystercatchers was established on the islands. Today, the Chatham Island oystercatcher (Torea) is
recognised as a different species. It has a shorter, thicker beak, larger legs and less distinct black and white patterning,
compared to the mainland oystercatcher.
Explain this observation (maximum 20 words) based on your understanding of genetics. (2 marks)
9. Farmers clear tropical forest and grow crops instead.
Explain how this causes the diversity of insects in the area to decrease.…read more