My Revision Notes on The Heart & Drug Testing (for the biol3 EMPA AQA Spec)

These are some notes I compiled for the EMPA, it's nothing to do with data representation, analysis etc, it's just pure heart and drug testing

HideShow resource information
Preview of My Revision Notes on The Heart & Drug Testing (for the biol3 EMPA AQA Spec)

First 14 words of the document:

2012 Biology AS level EMPA
The Heart & Heart Disease

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The Cardiac Cycle
Atrial Systole
Ventricular Systole
Cardiac Cycle Graph
Controlling the Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac Output
Heart Disease
Risk Factors Associated With CHD
Drugs & Disease
Drug Testing
Ethical Issues
Vaccination Programme
Problems With Vaccination
Refer to the EMPA Revision Booklet for all the information on data
representation, graphs and data analysis.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

The heart consists of a double pump mechanism that is
powerful enough to pump oxygenated blood all around out
body. It is made from cardiac muscle that creates enough
pressure to do this. It transports oxygen, glucose and carbon
dioxide amongst other things, oxygen & glucose are needed for
respiration.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

The Cardiac Cycle
One complete sequence of contraction and relaxation is
known as the cardiac cycle. Blood flows from a region of high
pressure to a region of low pressure. Different muscles contracting
and relaxing create different pressures. There are three parts
to the cycle.
The heart relaxes and atria fill with blood from the vena cava
and the pulmonary veins. As the atria fill with blood, pressure
in them rises and the atrioventricular valves open and blood
starts to pass into the ventricles.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Blood Flow Atria >
Atrioventricular Ope
Valves n
Semi Lunar Clos
Valves ed
Ventricular Systole
The ventricles now contract, increasing the pressure and blood
is pushed through the semi lunar valves, as pressure in the
ventricles is higher than that of the aorta and pulmonary
artery. The atrioventricular valves close as pressure in the
ventricles is higher than the pressure in the atria.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Cardiac Cycle Graph…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Valve Diastole Atrial Systole
Atrioventricula Open Open Closed
Semi Lunar Closed Closed Open
Controlling the Cardiac Cycle
The heart is myogenic, meaning, contractions arise from
within the cardiac muscle itself. Two nodes, the sinoatrial
node and the atrioventricular node, control it as follows.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

The SAN acts as a pacemaker and provides and electrical impulse that
initiates a heart beat.
The AVN allows the ventricles to fill with blood before they contract.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Cardiac Output…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Cardiac output is a measure of the total amount of blood that
is pumped out from the heart in one minute; to calculate it
you use this equation:
Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
Stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped put from each
ventricle during each contraction.
Heart rate is the amount of times the heart beats during one
minute.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »