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ASSUMPTIONS
- Behaviourism is primarily concerned with observable behaviour, as opposed
to internal events like thinking and emotion. Observable (external) behaviour can
be objectively and scientifically measured
- Psychology is a science so behaviour must be measured in highly controlled
environments to establish cause and effect
- When born, our mind is a blank slate
- There is little difference between the learning that takes place in humans and
that in other animals
- Behaviour is the result of a stimulus
- All behaviour is learnt from the environment…read more

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PAVLOV'S DOGS- CLASSICAL
CONDITIONING
- Learning by association
- Conditioning of reflexes and involves associating a new stimulus with an innate
bodily reflex (Drooling)
- Classical conditioning involves pairing a response naturally caused by one
stimulus with another previously neutral stimulus.…read more

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CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
1. Pavlov establish meat caused the dog to salivate (UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
[FOOD]= UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE [SALIVA])
2. Then Pavlov established that a tone did not cause the dog to salivate
3. He then presented the tone with the food. The dog salivates in response to the
food at this time (UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS [FOOD] + CONDITIONED STIMULUS
[BELL]= UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE [SALIVA])
The unconditioned response to an unconditioned stimulus (drooling at presence of
meat) has become the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus (drooling at
bell sound)
4. After several pairings of the tone and food, Pavlov found that the dog would
salivate to the tone when it was presented alone without the food (CONDITIONED
STIMULUS [BELL]= CONDITIONED RESPONSE [Saliva])…read more

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CLASSICAL CONDITIONING…read more

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OPERANT CONDITIONING- B.F. SKINNER
- This involves learning through the consequences (positive and negative) of our
behaviour. E.g. teaching a dog to fetch or roll by rewarding the dog in training.
Unlike classical conditioning, it involves voluntary behaviour and not a reflex
behaviour.
Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement
Increases likelihood of a response occurring Increases likelihood of a response occurring
because it involves a reward for the because it involves the removal of, or
behaviour. escaping from, and unpleasant consequence
E.g. Giving you an allowance for good E.g. torture is stopped when the victim
behaviour confesses
Positive punishment Negative punishment
The consequence is receiving something The consequence is removing something
unpleasant which decreases the probability of desirable and decreases the probability of the
the behaviour being repeated behaviour being repeated
E.g. Punishing a behaviour by hitting them E.g. Toys being taken away…read more

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