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Unit 1

1. FUNCTIONAL FOODS-foods which contain an added ingredient which promotes good
o Prebiotics contain added sugars called oligosaccharides which is `food' for the good bacteria
in our gut (carbohydrates)
o Probiotics contain the `good' bacteria themselves, replace lost bacteria due to stress, illness
o Good bacteria…

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o Yeast fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae used to produce invertase (also called sucrase). The
enzyme promotes breakdown of sugar sucrose into glucose and fructose. Invertase is used
to convert solid insides of chocolate into a liquid centre.
o Glucose isomerase-enzyme used in sweet making-converts glucose into fructose (it is very

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This reduction reduces risk to wild life
and lessens damage to the environment
Increased yields-food-money
6. Genetically engineered insulin *Vector-an organism used to transfer genes from one
organism to another *Fermentation-when micro-organisms break down large
molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce different substances (like food stuffs

and drugs)…

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o Salbutamol used to treat people suffering with asthma
o Enzymes in the liver break down drugs-however variations in the genes which code for
the enzymes means that their action in some people is more effective than in others.
o People with less active forms of the enzymes are at…

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o Advantages: Faulty genes eliminated, reduced risk of sex-linked genetic disorders
(haemophilia/ fewer terminations
o Disadvantages: May skew gender balance, risk of designer babies

Biotechnology: The process where we use plant cells, animal cells and micro-organisms to produce
useful substances

Unit 2
1. Animal communication
o Making sounds (snakes hiss…

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o If care increases chance of offspring surviving then parents indirectly benefit because
their genes pass from one generation to the next. Maybe parental care is all about
increasing the survival of parental genes
o Very common among vertebrates such as birds, mammals and some reptiles
4. Human communication

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Conditioning- The process where animals learn to associate a desired outcome with a stimulus that
is not directly linked to the possibility of the outcome

Classical conditioning; Animal will learn without trying (rattle a dogs lead before going on a walk,
dog will soon learn to associate the sound of…

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Anthropomorphism: The way we describe animals, plants and objects as having human
characteristics. We explain animal behaviour in terms of human emotions and characteristics.
(Anthromorphic) Giving animals human characteristics, dressing animals in clothes

Self-awareness: The idea that we know we exist. Self-awareness allows us to have an idea of what…

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