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Biology 2


Animal and Plant Cells

Animal Cells
o Nucleus ­ contains genetic information for making new cells or organisms ­ controls the activities
of the cell
o Cytoplasm ­ the liquid gel where all of the chemical reactions needed take place
o Cell Membrane ­ controls the passage…

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o A large permanent vacuole ­ affects the movement of the water across the cell
o Root hair cells are positioned close to the xylem tissue ­ allows the water to be carried up to the
rest of the plant
Sperm Cell
o Long tails so they can swim

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o Uses energy from respiration

How Plants Produce food


Carbon dioxide + water (+light energy) glucose + oxygen
Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll
Some of the glucose is used immediately by the cells in the plant ­ stored as starch
Iodine starch test for photosynthesis
Leaves are adapted
o Broad ­…

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How Plants use glucose

Glucose is converted to starch for storage
Plants use some of the energy to combine sugars with nutrients to create amino acids
o Built up fats and oils to make the food store in the seeds
Amino acids are built into proteins to be used in…

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Energy Flows

Pyramids of biomass

Biomass is the mass of living material in an animal or a plant
Usually measured in grams as the dry mass of biological material
The biomass at each stage is less than the previous stage
o Not all organisms at one stage are eaten by…

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o Reactions are controlled by enzymes
Most microorganisms grow better in damp conditions
o Moisture makes it easier to dissolve the food and prevents the decomposers from drying out
Some microbes work without oxygen
Decay happens faster with a surplus of oxygen

The Carbon Cycle

The amount of carbon on…

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Enzyme Structure

Activation energy ­ the minimum amount of energy a particle must have to react
Lower the temperature to slow reactions
Catalysts are used to speed up the reactions
Enzymes are biological catalysts
Enzymes are involved in
o Building larger molecules from small ones
o Changing one molecule…

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Mitochondria ­ the site of respiration
o Folded inner membrane which increases the surface area for the enzymes to work in
o Cells that need a lot of energy have lots of mitochondria
o Cells that don't need a lot of energy don't have lots of mitochondria

Enzymes in digestion…

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Passed into blood stream to the lungs
o Urea
Produced in the liver when excess amino acids are broken down
Passed from liver cells to the blood
Filtered by kidneys
Stored in bladder
o Maintaining body balance
Water and ions lost in sweat and urine
If content is wrong too…

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o Treatment
Manage diet
Insulin injections


Cell division and growth

o Produces identical daughter cells
o Asexual reproduction
o Chromosomes line up in the middle
o Split
o Exact copies are made of the chromosomes to make them a pair
o Cell membrane forms down the middle


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