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`A close emotional relationship between 2 person, characterised by mutual affection and a desire to
maintain proximity [closeness]' ­ Schaffer

Attachment theory studies importance of early relationships between infant and primary caregiver:

Explanation of attachment- Learning Theory:

Attachment is learned through operant and classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning infant learns…

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Types of Attachment: Secure Attachment, Insecure-Avoidant & Insecure-Resistant

Mary Ainsworth- observations of babies in Uganda and USA:

Secure children cries infrequently-happiest with mothers as offered safe-base to explore

Insecure infants cried frequently-craved attention, not upset about being alone& not respond to
mothers return.

Strange Situation:

1) Mother & child in…

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Types of Attachment & use of Strange Situation

Ainsworth & Bell: study individual differences in attachment types and how secure with primary
caregiver, controlled observation in lab using Strange Situation aged between 12-18 months. Found
clear individual differences in attachment types, 70% were secure and 20% insecure avoidant, 10%

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Due to factors including short term effects of temporary separation from primary caregiver or
long-term such as repeated or prolonged separation. Referred to deprivation and characterised
when bond broken.

Short-term disruption:

Protest (prevent mother from leaving)> Despair (apathetic withdrawn and refer to self-comfort)>
Detached (emotional detached, appear social and respond…

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Research evidence- Bowlby 44 juvenile thieves

Compared early lives of 44 juvenile thieves and 44 adolescences experiencing emotional problems in
clinic, 32% thieves diagnosed affectionless psychopaths; 86% of them experienced prolonged
separation from mothers in first 3 years. No adolescences affectionless psychopaths so deprivation
produces long-lasting irreversible effects.

! Clear…

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13 children spent 2 years in orphanage and placed with foster mother who was mentally retarded
but gave love and care in critical period, found IQ significantly improved and social development
better than control group remaining in orphanage, demonstrated negative intellectual and social
effects children institutionalised in orphanages could be…

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Positive effects-

Shea: children spent more time in day-care = more sociable and less aggressive, reduction in
difference from closest child and bigger in closest teacher (proximity) , lowest aggression = 5 days
compared to 2 days in care.

Negative effects-

NICHD: age 5, children spent more hours in a…


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