psychology 2

  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 11-11-12 18:41
Poole and Lindsay effects of age on ewt. - problems
could have investigators effects from parents and teachers knowing what is happening. the psychologists presence could throw child off.
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Poole and Lindsay effects of age on ewt.- positives
has mundane realism, no demand characteristics, sticks to the bps guidelines
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Karpel et al effects of age on ewt
17-25 yr olds and 65-85 yr olds were shown a video of a robbery and were asked what they saw. info from younguns more accurate and were less likely to be tricked by leading questions
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is a word to describe how info is coded once stored in brain; visual, acoustic and semantic (stories) are types of encoding. modality describes type of encoding used.
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sensory memory encoding?
varies depending on original modality (what sense did info come from?)
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Short term memory encoding?
mainly acoustic encoding
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long term memory encoding?
memories stored semantically. we attach existing memories to the new ones.
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what did police used to do in cognitive interview, what changed this?
they used to use leading questions, closed questions and would interrupt. home office changed the rules so cognitive interviews could produce good quality memories that are accurate as they can be
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cognitive interview; context reinstatement
mentally reinstate the context of target event. recall the scene, the weather, what you were thinking and feeling at the time, the preceding events etc.
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cognitive interview; report everything
report every detail you can even if it seems trivial
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cognitive interview; recall in reverse order
report the episode in several different temporal orders- moving backwards and forwards in time
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cognitive interview; recall from changed perspective
try to describe the episode as if it was from different viewpoints, not just own.
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Directional - hypotheses
predicts the direction of the results
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Non directional - hypotheses
doesn't state the directions of the results it just states that there'll be a connection
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this means to clearly define what you mean by the independent and dependent variables. making sure readers will know exactly what you mean and how you'll measure your IVs and DVs
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needs to be representative of the target population i.e. the findings can be applied to everyone. representative means you need to get a large target population sample- represents the people of the target population
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Random Sampling
everyone in target population has equal chance of participating (eg names in a hat).. pros= good technique allows to have an unbiased sample.. cons=difficult to make sure everyone is included and if they want to take part
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Opportunity Sampling
most common method. ask anyone whos available. pros= practical and quick way of selecting participants.. cons=sample is unlikely to be representative of wider population (think of setting of psychology investigation)
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Volunteer sampling
when adverts are used to attract participants. pros=allows large sample (if advertised well) statistical tests can work well. cons= unlikely to represent the whole population-only people who would read the adverts can take part.
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how to reduce demand characteristics?
CHANGE METHODOLOGY-after doing pilot study ask people if they figured what experiment was about. use SINGLE BLIND technique- thing is you wont get full informed consent from this
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example of demand characteristics - yarmey et al
tested motion sickness , people where given questionnaire about experience before they did it felt more sick than those who recieved it after - they new what the psychologist was expecting
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Greenspoon effect
psychologists can change participants answers by body language (eg nodding and sounds of dis/encouragement
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pygmalion effect
people perform well because they are expected to by others. eg teachers overheard experimenters talking about an average student but experimenters said they would be really clever. year later they do amazing in school
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investigator effects - rosenthal
gave 2 conditions worms- one he told them that the worms were highly active and they recorded that they were. other group were told the worms were inactive they recorded less movement. there was no difference in worms.
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reduce investigators effects by...
using double blind technique and a computer programme
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Pilot studies
trial runs for experiment. test on a few people to perfect the experiment. benefit coz 1. see if participant figured out the experiment- you can eliminate demand characteristics. 2. check if the standardised instructions & debrief are clear enough
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Independent design
different people are used for each condition
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Independent design- positives
less chance people will work out what you're doing because they only sit one condition, reduces demand characteristics. no order effects
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Independent design- negatives
you need to find 2x as many participants to test on. hard to compare conditions because they are different people with individual differences- one condition could contain people who have wildly different personalities to eachother.
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Matched participants design
different people are used for different conditions but they are made as similar to the other group as possible.
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Matched participants- positives
only use one condition, no order effects. less of a problem of individual differences- 2 conditions as similar as possible makes them more comparable.
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Matched participants- negatives
it takes time and effort to match the conditions. individual differences- will they ever be matched?
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repeated measures design
the same people in both conditions
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repeated measures- positives
only need half as many people. no individual differences. it's easy to compare both conditions
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repeated measures- negatives
easier for people to figure out whats going on (demand characteristics). order effects may occur (perform worse in 2nd condition than first) . experience / memories from 1st condition may affect the second.
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in repeated measures design- half participants sit 1st condition then 2nd . other half sit 2nd then 1st condition,
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organise info that needs to be learned, 1 study of trainee doctors shown that students who can do mind maps remembered 10% more than those who dont.
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Mindmaps- evaluation
useful as student is actively involved and has to think whereas note taking is done with less attention and effort. connections allow student to understand topic as a whole. encourage you to select the main important points rather than trivial ones.
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visual mnemonic, method of loci
learn list of unrelated words, pair words with different locations well known to you that involve some order eg shoe was on table.
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visual mnemonic, method of loci- evaluation
useful for remembering lists- but lacks mundane realism you dont have to remember lists like that. not useful with complex material, if the words are connected, if you dont have an imagination and to remember lists from the past.
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features of an experiment
1. independent variable is manipulated by psychologist. 2. all other variables are eliminated/ controlled. 3. participants are allocated to different conditions randomly.
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QUASI experiment
does not have all three features of a true experiment
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TRUE experiment
has all three features of an experiment
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laboratory experiment
takes place in a controlled environment and allows the psychologist to test the effect of the independent variable on dependent.
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laboratory experiment- pros
replicate easily. control the conditions and the extraneous variables well. this amount of control allows us to see the effects of the IV on the DV.
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laboratory experiment-cons
lacks mundane realism-real life isnt controlled and labs are artificial. demand characteristics- people more likely to work out whats going on.
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Natural experiment
psychologist has no control over the independent variable or the setting the experiment will take place. they look at situations where people grouped themselves naturally.
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Natural experiment- pros
has mundane realism- real life. no demand characteristics- dont know theyre in an experiment. costs time and money. can look at events they couldnt produce themselves
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Natural experiment- cons
quasi experiment. no control over the groups - people could have individual differences. lots of extraneous variables would be present. similar to naturalistic observation.
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Poole and Lindsay effects of age on ewt.- positives


has mundane realism, no demand characteristics, sticks to the bps guidelines

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Karpel et al effects of age on ewt


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Card 5


sensory memory encoding?


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