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The aim of a study is what you want to find out. When writing a project it is
important that this is very specific

A hypothesis states what your prediction is. There are two types of hypotheses. A
null hypothesis where you state there will be no change. It is…

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One-tailed hypothesis: a directional hypothesis

Two-tailed hypothesis: One in which no direction is

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A pilot study is an initial run-through of the procedures to be used in an investigation; it involves
selecting a few people and trying out the study on them. It is possible to save time, and in some cases,
money, by identifying any flaws in the procedures designed…

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This type of experiment is conducted in a well-controlled environment ­ not necessarily a
laboratory ­ and therefore accurate measurements are possible
The researcher decides where the experiment will take place, at what time, with which
participants, in what circumstances and using a standardised procedure

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These are conducted in the everyday (i.e. natural) environment of the participants
but the situations are still artificially set up
The experimenter still manipulates the IV, but in a real-life setting (so cannot really
control extraneous variables)



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Natural experiments are conducted in the everyday (i.e. natural) environment of the participants but
here the experimenter has no control over the IV as it occurs naturally in real life, e.g. Hodges and
Tizard's research (1989) which compared the long term development of children who have been
adopted, fostered or…


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