baron-cohen adults with autism and theory of mind
the autistic spectrum
classic autism-----------asperger's syndrome------------normal
triad of impairments
- difficulties with social interaction; (relating and understanding other people in social interactions)
- difficulties with communication; (minimal language, difficulty with verbal and non-verbal communication or not able to read facial expressions or gestures).
- difficulties with imagination; lack of imaginative ability which will affect the quality of play. (replaced by; obsessive, repetitive behaviuor eg watching objects spin and resistance to change.children with autism do not engage in sociodramatic play.
echolalia- when a child with autism repeats words
islets of ability- people with autism having a gift or talent, (due to obsessive behaviour)
central cohesiveness- ability to see larger picture. for example: "there was a tear in her eye" and "there was a tear in her dress"
there are two types of beliefs that are investigated in the research on false beliefs.
- first order belief task (think about another person's thoughts). this normally develops at the age of 4.
- second order beliefs (think about a persons, persons thoughts). third person and usually develops at the age of 6 and 7.
- simone said it was just an extreame form of the male brain.
- systemising; men are more likley to analyze systems and construct how they work.
- empathising; women are more likley to have an emotional response than men.
core deficit- when people with autism find the same thing difficult.
ceiling effect- test is too easy, everyone gets full marks
20% of high functioning autistic adults passes the sally-anne test, the others lacked in theory of mind.
the eyes test
pictures were standerdised because; the photos were all of the same area of the face, same size, black and white, taken from magazine photos, shown for three seconds and two words underneath the picture to describe the emotion/ facial expression.
the "foil" (wrong word) was always the semantic opposite of the target (correct word). the foil and the target were randomised (could be left or right). total score of 25.
validity of the eyes test
- not affected by executive function (no attention switching, planning)
- no central coherence component- by showing parts of the face, there is no "whole context" to interpret.