AS Psychology revision - unit 2

For my unit 2 revision, I decided to type up questions on everything I needed to know so that I could get others to test me on it. This includes everything on stress (biological psychology), social influence, and abnormality (individual differences). It may not be very pretty, but I figured I might as well upload it as it is so you can do whatever you like with the text. :)

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 06-07-12 14:55
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The body's response to stress

Q: What is stress?

A: The subjective experience of the perceived demands of a situation being greater than a person's
perceived ability to cope.



Q: What is the fight or flight response?

A: The reaction of the nervous system in response to a stressful situation…

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Stress-related illness: the immune system

Q: What is the immune system?

A: A network of cells and chemicals in the body which seek out and destroy invading particles.



Q: What are white blood cells also called?

A: Leucocytes.



Q: What are the two types of white blood cells?

A: Phagocytes…

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Conclusions that can be drawn from the study are that exam stress reduced immune functioning,
and that immune functioning is affected by psychological factors.



Q: Evaluate this study.

A: It is a natural experiment, so can be applied to real life. However, there are potentially
uncontrolled extraneous variables, and there…

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two groups of rats with cancerous cells ­ group 1 were rotated for 10 minutes every hour for three
days, group 2 were not rotated. Group 1 developed large tumours and some died, whilst group 2
showed little to no tumour growth. Therefore, the drop in the T cell count…

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Doesn't take into account individual differences.

SRRS includes positive and negative events, and doesn't distinguish between the two.

People may perceive events differently.

It uses retrospective data.

Doesn't demonstrate the effect of other factors.



Daily hassles

Q: What are daily hassles?

A: The minor but frustrating demands of everyday life.…

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Workplace stress

Q: What are the factors contributing to workplace stress?

A: The work environment, workload, work/life balance, job control/decision latitude (how much
control you have over different aspects of your job.



Q: Describe a study into job demand, job control and job strain.

A: Karasek investigated the relationship between…

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correlational, not showing causation. Individual differences haven't been taken into account. The
samples were biased.



Personality factors and stress

Q: What three behaviour patterns are parts of a type A personality?

A: Time pressured, competitive and hostile.



Q: Describe a study investigating the link between coronary heart disease and type…

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Q: Describe three studies into hardiness.

A: Kobasa produced a questionnaire into hardiness. Managers of large companies who were
assessed as hardy were less likely to suffer from stress-related illness. Beasley found that students
scoring highly on hardiness had reduced stress levels. Lifton et al found that US students with…

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-Time-consuming and requires high motivation

-Unnecessarily complex ­ may be equally as effective to relax more or talk more positively?



Q: How does hardiness training work?

A: The first stage is focusing, where the client is taught to recognise physiological signs of stress, and
to identify sources of stress. The…

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-BZs have side-effects (tiredness, memory impairment, increased aggression and sedation).

-Treats symptoms, not causes.

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