AS OCR Religious Studies - Ethics - Glossary of the Unit

All the key terms and words you may need to know for the exam! Added extra ones that are easy to revise that will boost up your 10 and 25 markers! Hope your AS exams go well and the glossary helps! :) Caitlin 

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Glossary for AS Ethics

Basic Approaches

Duty Ethics. This is often called "deontological ethics"--from Greek Deon --that which is obligatory
or a duty. Actions are right or wrong to the extent that they are fulfilment of duty. Duty theories
differ as to where to find human duties defined--usually in God,…

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the four primary virtues: prudence, justice, courage, and temperance. Proponents include Alasdair
Macintyre, Stanley Hauerwas, and Gilbert Meilaender.

Situation Ethics. An ethics based on the virtue of love in concrete situations. (Note that
"situation ethics" does not draw its criteria exclusively from what is publically observed
about a "situation.") Joseph…

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Atheism. The belief that God does not exist. In the last two centuries, some of the most influential
atheistic philosophers have been Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Bertrand Russell, and Jean-Paul
Sartre.

Autonomy. The ability to freely determine one's own course in life. Etymologically, it stems from
Greek words for "self"…

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Divine Command Ethics. A view that "good" applies to whatever God commands. So God can
command Abraham to sacrifice his son, or command the Israelites to invade a foreign country and
slaughter its inhabitants. This view is criticized as subordinating reason to God's commands. See
"Voluntarism."

Double-Effect. A theory used…

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Distributive Justice regards the distribution of goods and services across society. The mainly
applies to the economy, to obligations to participate in government, and to the problem of
poverty.

Legal Justice regards claims sanctioned by laws. It applies both to redressing wrongs
(bringing criminals "to justice") and to developing laws…

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the term is largely connected to blame (see above). In virtue ethics (character), it refers to an inner,
normative demand that we choose what is objectively better as opposed to what is only better for
oneself or one's group.

Rights. Historically, rights are entitlements to do something without interference from…

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not in any way that might stand in judgment about God's commands. Key proponents are Duns
Scotus, William of Ockham, and Emmanuel Kant. See "Divine Command Ethics."




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