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Briefly outline developmental approach (4 marks)
· All behaviour in adulthood is effected by experiences in childhood
· Developmental changes are a result of inherited factors (nature), which include events that occur as a result of
maturation, such as puberty
· Lifetime experiences (nurture), which include interactions with other people
Two pieces that use developmental approach (8 marks)
· Expanded Piaget's original theory on Cognitive development · To find out if children will imitate
and ability to conserve aggression they've witnessed
· Laboratory experiment using water, plasticine and counters, · Field experiment where children witnessed
but added 2 extra conditions: judgement task & fixed array. a model (male/female) acting in an
· In judgement task= children shown materials before and aggressive/passive manner with Bobo dol.
after transformation, but were asked question "which is
bigger, has more?" after transformation took place · Children taken into room with same toys
· In fixed array task= children were shown materials after imitating what they'd seen
transformation had taken place. · Shows that children learn through process
· They found like Piaget that children develop ability to of "social learning theory"
conserve number, before other materials (volume/mass) · Children were more likely to imitate model
· Also found that children could conserve at earlier age in one that was similar + relevant to them (same-
judgement condition sex model)
· Because if you ask children same question twice, they
automatically assume answer is wrong first time and give
different answer.…read more

Slide 2

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Discuss strengths + limitations of developmental approach to explain behaviour. Use examples (12 marks)
1) Provides useful information about how to 1) Findings can't be generalised from limited samples
understand children better · Developmental approach usually looks for general
· Means we can help learn and deal with emotional patterns of development based on non-representative
difficulties and improve their lives samples
· E.g. Samuel + Bryant findings= used to identify & · E.g. Freud= he argued all children experience
help children with cognitive developmental psychosexual stages based on only his case study on
difficulties Little Hans and his own introspective
· E.g. Bandura's findings= have massive implications · E.g. Samuel + Bryant= generalised findings about
about how adults show act in presence of children cognitive development from just children in one town
· E.g. Freud= provides therapies to enable individuals in UK, ignoring cultural differences relating to how
to cope with earlier traumatic experiences children may learn in other parts of world
2) Many studies are longitudinal · However, studies like Bandura has been replicated in
· Means behaviour and changes can be measured other cultures.
and investigated over time 2) Validity of measuring children's behaviour and
· Also other areas of development such as cognitive thoughts
and emotional development can be studied. · Psychologists might not actually be measuring what
· E.g. Freud= case study over 2 years enabling they're attempting to measure, seeing as children may
emotional development of young boy to be have qualitatively different thoughts to adults
investigated in great detail · E.g. Bandura= criticised for interpreting children's
· E.g. Samuel + Bryant= sample of children aged 5- behaviour towards Bobo doll as aggression. It could be
8.5 years used- allows to investigate interpreted as playing instead
developmental changes · E.g. Freud= interpretation is biased as it's Freud's
interpretation of Hans' father's interpretation of his
son's phobias…read more

Slide 3

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Discuss how developmental approach can help understanding of everyday life (8 marks)
· Understanding of how children pass through certain developmental stages can help in spotting problems and
taking early action.
· E.g. Samuel & Bryant used to inform education policy and help children whose development is slower than
· Freud's emphasis on importance of early childhood experiences has informed modern social work practice
· Importance of early attachment bond is seen as important when children are placed with new families
· Bandura's work on effects of role models on learning aggressive behaviour has informed media policies
· Now recognised that children need to be protected from violent and aggressive scenes in media- has led to
classification systems and timed programmes on TV to make sure children aren't exposed to these things
Discuss how individual differences can help our understanding of everyday life (8 marks)
· Understanding of mental illnesses such as Schizophrenia and Multiple Personality Disorder
· Also given us insight into addictive behaviour such as gambling
· E.g. Rosehan highlighted problems that individual face with diagnosis of mental illness face, as labelled mental is
· Once labelled mentally ill, difficult to overcome prejudice and fear associated with it
· Has led to improvements in therapies available to people with mental disorder
· Studies led to more understanding and less discrimination towards people with abnormality…read more

Slide 4

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Briefly outline individual differences (4 marks)
· Behaviour which comes from normality is considered abnormal
· Aims to make generalisations about differences between people
· Focuses on unique characteristics of individuals e.g. Personality, problem behaviours (gambling), abnormality (e.g.
Two pieces that use individual differences (8 marks)
· Field experiment testing reliability of diagnosis of · Case study on Eve, woman with multiple
psychological abnormality personality disorder
· Hypothesised that psychiatrists couldn't reliably · Discovered 3 separate personalities: Eve White
diagnose/distinguish sane from insane (shy, respectable wife + mother), Eve Black
· 8 participants presented themselves at different (promiscuous, party girl) and Jane (most stable of
American psychiatric hospitals and reported single all 3)
symptom, a voice saying word "thud" · Psychometric tests used to compare Eve White and
· After admission, they were instructed to behave Black. IQ showed Black had 104, White= 110
perfectly normally. · MPD is usually linked to childhood trauma and this
· All were admitted for between 7-52 days and were is why study can be considered psychodynamic
eventually released with diagnosis of schizophrenia · Concluded that solution to Eve's problem were to
in remission let Jane dominate personality
· Showed that mental illness is very difficult to · Aimed to achieve this through extensive therapy
diagnose and leads to reforms in mental heath
system…read more

Slide 5

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Discuss strengths + limitations of individual differences to explain behaviour. Use examples (12 marks)
1) Allows to understand human behaviour and find 1) Reliance on dispositional explanations at the expense
treatments for psychological disorders of situational explanations.
· Useful in improving experiences of people with · ID approach explains individual differences as resulting
mental health problems. from a person's own characteristics and has tendency
to ignore external factors such as the situation a person
· E.g. Rosenhan= led to a revision of the way people is in.
with mental health problems are both diagnosed · E.g. Thigpen + Cleckley= Eve's difficulties could be
and treated. explained by the expectations of being a wife in the US
· E.g. Griffiths= suggests that type of cognitive in 1950s.
behavioural therapy may be successful with · E.g. Rosehan= behaviour of the pseudo patients was
addicted gamblers. misinterpreted as being a consequence of their
2) Development + use of psychometric tests to supposed illness when it could be result of hospital
measure differences between individuals such as
personality & intelligence. 2) Susceptible to ethical issues
· Labelling people as being different/abnormal- can have
· Provide reliable & quantitative data which can a negative effect on individuals.
easily be analysed and therefore similarities and
· E.g. Rosenhan was particularly critical about both the
differences between individuals can be reliability of labelling and the negative effects such
discovered. labelling has on the person.
· E.g. Thigpen + Cleckley= psychometric tests used · Such labels particularly negative ones can lead to a self
also in prison study by Reicher + Haslam fulfilling prophecy in which expectations about a
person can come true simply because of those
expectations…read more

Slide 6

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Briefly outline physiological approach (4 marks)
· Behaviour + experiences can be explained by physiological changes, in which our brain, nervous system & other
biological factors e.g. Hormones explain what we do and how we behave
· Behaviour can be studies scientifically using controlled equipments e.g. MRI scans or EEG equipment
· Firmly on nature/nurture debate- we are the way we are due to genetics, not environment
Two pieces that use physiological approach (8 marks)
· Quasi experiment testing whether changes in the · Laboratory experiment investigating relationship
brain could be detected in those with extensive between rapid eye movements and dreaming
navigation experience. (length and content)
· 16 right-handed male taxi drivers with experience · Included 9 adults in which electrodes were
and 16 right-handed male non-taxi drivers attached around their eyes to measure eye
· MRI brain scans of 50 healthy, right-handed, male movement & to scalp to record brain activity using
non-taxi drivers were analysed to see comparison of EEG
"average hippocampus" using VBM · Participants woken up during period of REM were
· MRI brain scans of 16 taxi drivers +16 non-taxi drivers more likely to recall dream, than those woken in
matched analyses by VBM and compared to database NREM
· Results showed taxi-driver had greater volume in · Positive correlation between estimated length of
posterior hippocampus than in non-taxi drivers. dream and length of REM and relationship found
· Correlational analysis showed volume of right between content of dream and pattern of eye
posterior hippocampus increased as length of time as movements
taxi driver increased. · Study showed that dreaming can be studied in
· Suggests structure of brain changes in response to objective + scientific way
environmental demand · Also that REM sleep is important and the brain
needs to sleep to organise itself…read more

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