OCR PE AS acquiring movement skills revision notes

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Acquiring movement skills
Classification of motor skills
Gross skills involve large muscle movements. There is little concern for prevision. E.g running
and swimming
Fine skills involve intricate movements and use small muscle groups. E.g the wrist action of a
spin bowler in cricket
Open skills are skills that are affected by the environment. Involve decision making.
Movements adapted to suit situation. Unpredictable environment. Externally paced. E.g a
pass in rugby.
Closed skills are skills that are not affect by the environment. Habitual skills. Self paced. E.g
tennis serve.
Discrete skills have a clear beginning and end. E.g Catching a ball or a penalty in football.
Serial skills have a number of decrete elements put together in a definite order to make a
movement or sequence. E.g a trampolining sequence
Continuous skills have no definite beginning or end. End of one cycle begins the next. E.g
running or cycling.
Self-Paced-Externally Paced:
Self-paced: Control of skill is determined by performer. Normally closed skills. E.g high jump
and a tennis serve.
Externally paced: Control of skill is not determine by performer but by the environment.
Performer may have to react. Normally open skills. E.g receiving a pass in football.
Simple skills have little information that the performer needs to process and make decisions
about. Small number of sub routines, speed and timing not critical. Feedback not significant.
May still be difficult to learn. E.g swimming and running.
Complex skills: The performer has high perceptual load leading to many decisions which
have to be made. Many sub-routines, speed and timing critical. Significant use of feedback.
E.g tennis serve and a somersault
KEY TERM: Perceptual load: The amount of info that the performer has to process.
Low organisation skills use sub routines which are separated and practised by themselves.
They are then put back together in to the whole skill one practised separately. E.g swimming
strokes, trampolining sequence.
High organisation skills: sub routines very closely linked and very difficult to separate without
disrupting the skill. Usually practised as a whole. E.g golf swing.
Methods of manipulating skills practise
Part practise:
Low organisation. Can be broken down into sub routines to reduce complexity. Parts
practised in isolation before being put together as a whole. E.g tennis serve (Grip, stance,
back swing, ball toss, ball contact, follow through.). Good if task is complex or dangerous as
it reduces fear and risk. Could increase motivation when individual parts learnt. Good for
learning serial skills.

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It is essential the learner see the whole skill demonstrated prior to practise so they have an
image of the skill they are learning in their head.
Disadvantages: Can take longer to learn skill. Loss of overall kinaesthesis.
Whole practise:
Skill taught as whole. High organisation, low complexity. E.g sprinting and cycling.
Leaner develops kinaesthesis feel for movement.
Good for ballistic skills.
Disadvantages: not suitable for complex or dangerous skills.
Advantage: skill learnt quicker than part method.…read more

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o Gross body equilibrium
o Trunk Strength
Psychomotor abilities ­ Usually involve the processing of information, making decisions and
putting these decisions into action. Usually movements. Fleishmen identified 11:
o Multi-limb co-ordination
o Response orientation
o Reaction time
o Speed of movement
o Finger dexterity
o Manual dexterity
o Rate control
o Aiming
Research shows that sometimes skills need different abilities at different stages of learning.…read more

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More detailed verbal feedback is given to learner.
Learner may return to cognitive phase to review and refine their mental image.
KEY TERM: Motor programme: A series of movements stored in the long term memory. They
specify the movements the skill consists of and the order they occur. They can be retrieved by one
Autonomous phase:
Final phase.
Skills can be executed with minimum thought allowing performer to concentrate on other
factors such as the environment and subtle cues. E.…read more

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o Teacher has to be able to get the information across to the learners and the learners
have to relate the information they receive to the skill being learned.
o The amount of information given has to be limited.
o Some complex skills are difficult to describe concisely and learners become bored.
Teacher holding and physically manipulating the body of the learner through the correct
pattern of movement. Could be guiding the arm through a forehand shot in tennis.…read more

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Varied Practise:
Skill practised in many different environments.
Good for open skills.
Allows development of schema by adding more information.
Adapts skill to suit different environment.
Practise in realistic conditions.
Develops perceptual and decision making skills.
Example is a 4 v 5 passing game in football.
Repetitive action allows learner to overlearn the skill becoming habitual. This allows learner
to focus on the changing environment.
KEY TERM: Schema: A store of information in the long term memory that updates and modifies
programmes.…read more

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Effectors: The muscles receive the
relevant motor programme in the form
of coded impulses; they initiate the
movement and the action is
Feedback: internal or external
Whiting's Model:
1. Display: Environment your in e.g.
teammates, opponents, spectators, noise,
umpires etc... some of this info will be noticed
and stimulate the sensory systems...
2. Receptor Systems: Refers to the sense
organs which receive information
3.…read more

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o Recognition aspect of perception.
o Information compared to that previously learn and stored in the LTM.
o Limited capacity 7+-2 items (Millers magic number) or 5-9.
o Lasts up to 30 seconds .
o Can be increased by chunking or linking.
o Important information passes into LTM for further use.
o Comparison aspect of perception.
KEY TERM: Chunking: Different pieces of information are put together and remembered as one
piece of information.…read more

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o The likelihood of the stimulus occurring.
Single Channel Hypothesis:
When receiving many stimuli the brain can only deal with one stimulus at a time.
Choice Reaction time:
When there is more than one stimulus and more than one response. E.g a badminton player
having the stimuli of the different shots their opponent may play and the responses of which
shot to select to return the shuttle.
Hicks Law: Choice reaction time increases linearly as the number of stimulus alternatives
increases.…read more

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Short loop.
Internal feedback through kinaethesis and proprioception.
Allows quick subconscious corrections to take place. E.g skier making quick adjustments to
retain balance.
Adjustments stored in the LTM.
Closed loop control
Level Three:
Longer feedback loop because information on performance is relayed to the brain.
Brain controls and modifies the movement by passing corrective messages back to the
working muscles.
Internal and external feedback
Feedback is important to the sports performer because:
o Confidence will improve.
o Motivation may increase.…read more



brief in parts but is good overall 5*

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