AS History AQA- Nazi Hitler FULL notes - totalitarian unit

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  • Created on: 03-05-13 21:52
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1928 report that Nazis had no `noticeable' influence
1923 munich puctch had resulted to the imprisonment of Hitler and his arrest
In 1925 = was able to rebuild the party, economic stability had let to political stability so extremist
parties like the Nazis had seemed to missed there chance
1928 elections = support declined by 3.4%for Nazis
Nazi ideology = a confused and contradictory set of ideas based on the 1920 25 point programme
hitler published in Mein Kampf
Hitlers popularity as as `Fuhere', fear of nazi terror and nazi ideology being popular resulted to
intolerance of diversity
Nazi ideology:
Combination of nationalism and socialism
Ww1 resentment of a defeated power was a cetral feature of german nationalism + fear
and hatred of communism
Nazism = wasn't a new set of ideas but the combination of ideas and their extremism was
new due to hitler creating `Hitlerism'
Able to bring the concepts of socialism and nationalism together through his belief of
volksgemeinschaft `peoples community'
One he was in control of party and in power = his nationalistic, racist and anti-communist
ideas became known as national socialism
Shaping of nazi ideology
1) Nationalism and legacy of WW1
German empire in 1914 thought of itself as worlds greatest power ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm
Germany = world leader in new and emerging industries chemical and electrical
engineering, coal and iron, steel
German army = a trained reserve that was on a par with regular army and every junior officer
and NCO trained to do job of their superior
Germanys navy = second largest in world
Had 13 colonies in Africa acia and pacific = german empire confirmed germans status as a
great power
Great philosophers like marx, great composers like Beethoven
Germany entering WW1 = great enthusiasm
Thought war would enable country to ensure its dominance of continental Europe
No sense that germany = defeated
Germane was never invaded, deafeated and almost broke into France so people didn't
doubt a victory
German surrender on nov 1918 = incomprehensible to germans who had been stabbed in the
back by the November criminals leader of the SPD (largest party) was Jewish

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New wiemer republic = established out of defeat and was associated with failure and
goevened by traitors
Treaty of Versailles: signed in 1919
Opposition to the treaty = centrl belief of german nationalists
Treaty condemned as a diktat because german delegation couldn't negotiate terms
Germany lost all non-german speaking territory , lost all over seas colonies
German army who had been a symbol of pride = reduced to 100,000 men
Germany restricted to 6 battleships and no airforce or submarines
Unification of austira and germany…read more

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Ideology, policial aims and ideas published in mein kampf
Wasn't a coherent set of ideas
Key themes:
1) Expand empire and unite the austro-hungarian empire and germany
2) Anti-semetic jewish businesses undermined war effort, new gov.…read more

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Intolerance of diversity:
1) National socialism stressed the subordinations of the individual to the state common goal =
perfect state duty and sacrifice in pursuit of a common goal was crucial
2) The Kaisers germany was a great power and had been an authoritarian state and hitler
wanted to restore that
3) Allowing personal and political freedom and diversity = caused a weak and chaotic state
weak gov. was the root cause of Germanys post war problems hyperinflation, TOV,
unemployemtn, national humiliation.…read more

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J on all passports if going Switzerland to restrict emigration because due to nazi policies
they were poor or unemployed
Anschluss with Austria in 1938 all ant-semetic decrees applied in astria awell
Anschluss: union of germany and Austria Creation of a unified greater germany = part of ideolofy
Night of the broken glass:
Assasination of Ernst von Rath in paris 1938 intensified anti-semitism because the assassin
was a Jew
8-9 novemember 1938 = night of broken glass
15 hours = 177 synagogues destroyed, 7500 jewish…read more

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Jews and gypsies viewed with discomfort where the lives with `normal' population
Social outsiders whose behaviour or physical appearance led the Nazis to believe that they
where degenerate or biologically inferior
Those who were degenerate = dangerous
Seen as a threat to public order
Mass arrests in 1933
Didnt fit in the people community
1937 law was passed that a liberty to roam free implied a mindset rejecting to put the
state first
Tramps = sterilised
The work-shy
No longer tolerated after 1936
A…read more

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Boys and girls had separate movements
Boys: nazi ideology, physical activity, outdoor activity, commitment to national socialism and
military discipline where given uniform and dagger and were Germanys future
Loyalty to hitler youth + nazi state = more important than loyalty to parents causing a clash
with some parents who were socialist or communist
Led to betrayal of families by the indoctrination of children
Girls:learned dogma and dometic skills, year of labour serie, physical fitness for preparing
bodies for childbirth
Nurumberg rally 900 girls aged…read more

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Competing political ideologies:
Ideological enemies of national socialism = ruthlessly pursued
Was a monolithic ideology other beliefs and values = not tolerated
Creation of a one party state = based on deire for total power alone, suppression of other
parties and also suppression of other ideologies which were wrong and risked undermining
national community
Other political parties banned or decided to disband
SPD = split and members found in germany arrested and sent to concentration cams
Catholic centre party = gave up political rights in…read more

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SD branch of ss provided info on political opponents Jews, church
Enemies of state detained in camps KPD 300,000, SPD and trade unions
`terror is the best policial weapon'
Limits to intolerance:
Abable to crush a great deal of racial, social and political intolerance in 1933-39
Regime wasn't entirely successful in its pursuit oof uniformity
5,000 jews surmising in Belrin alone
Head of a local nazi party drew back from arresting head of local SPD because men grown up
Personal relationsips prevended regime from…read more

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Historical films = emphasise need for a important leaser and their role in historical changes
Historiography of holocaust:
Intentionalist historians ­ Lucy Dawidowicz = see a deliberate plan or intention for Holocaust
final solution always away of eliminating Jews and see Hitler being cenral to the
development of holocaust
Functionalist historians nazi policy wasn't planned and historians such as HANDs MOMMSEN
argue process of cumulative radicalisation that there was no plan but circumstances led to
extreme actons because they couldn't manage numbers
Ian Kershaw nazi…read more


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