AS Chemistry Glossary (from Exam cafe cd-rom)

As chemistry glossary from cd rom which came with ocr text book, would be appreciated if anyone has the physics glossary from the physics book. Email me please, hope this helps.



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  • Created by: MatthewJG
  • Created on: 13-11-10 13:05
Preview of AS Chemistry Glossary (from Exam cafe cd-rom)

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acid A species that is a proton donor.
activation energy The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking
of bonds.
addition polymer A very long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions
of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers).
addition The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers)
polymerisation add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time to form a very
long saturated molecular chain (the addition polymer).
addition reaction A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated
molecule to make a saturated molecule.
adsorption The process that occurs when a gas, liquid or solute is held to the
surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid.
alicyclic hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring
aliphatic hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or
branched chains.
alkali A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions,
OH­(aq) ions.
alkanes The homologous series with the general formula: CnH2n+2.
alkyl group An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed, e.g. CH3, C2H5 alkyl
groups are often shown as `R'.
amount of substance The quantity whose unit of the mole. Chemists use `amount of
substance' as a means of counting atoms.
anhydrous A substance that contains no water molecules.
anion A negatively charged ion.
atom economy
atomic orbital A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with
opposite spins.

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The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
average bond The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by
enthalpy homolytic fission 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of
a gaseous species.
Avogadro constant, NA The number of atoms per mole of the carbon12 isotope
(6.02 × 1023 mol­1).
base A species that is a proton acceptor.
biodegradable material A substance that is broken down naturally in the environment by
living organisms.…read more

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The breaking down of longchained saturated hydrocarbons to
form a mixture of shorterchained alkanes and alkenes.
curly arrow A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of
an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
dative covalent A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the
bonding atoms only also called a coordinate bond.
dehydration An elimination reaction in which water is removed from a
saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.…read more

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The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an
unsaturated molecule.
empirical formula The simplest wholenumber ratio of atoms of each element
present in a compound.
endothermic reaction A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the
enthalpy of the reactants, resulting in heat being taken in from the
surroundings (H +ve).
enthalpy, H The heat content that is stored in a chemical system.…read more

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The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical
general formula The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous
series. For example, the general formula of the alkanes is CnH2n+2.
giant covalent lattice A threedimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong
covalent bonds.
giant ionic lattice A threedimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, bonded
together by strong ionic bonds.
giant metallic lattice A threedimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised
electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds.…read more

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A compound of hydrogen and carbon only.
hydrogen bond A strong dipole­dipole attraction between an electrondeficient
hydrogen atom (O­H+ or N­H+) on one molecule and a lone pair
of electrons on a highly electronegative atom (H­O:­ or H­N:­)
on a different molecule.
hydrolysis A reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that breaks a
chemical compound into two compounds.
initiation The first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are
generated by ultraviolet radiation.
intermolecular force An attractive force between neighbouring molecules.…read more

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A sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a
metallic bond The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and
delocalised electrons.
molar mass, M The mass mole of a substance. The units of molar mass are
g mol­1.
molar volume The volume per mole of a gas. The units of molar volume are dm3
mol­1. At room temperature and pressure the molar volume is
approximately 24.0 dm3 mol­1.…read more

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A horizontal row of elements in the Periodic Table. Elements show
trends in properties across a period.
periodicity A regular periodic variation of properties of elements with atomic
number and position in the Periodic Table.
permanent dipole A small charge difference across a bond resulting from a
difference in electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
permanent An attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring
dipole­dipole force polar molecules.…read more

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The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to
ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the
flask boiling dry.
relative atomic mass, The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared
Ar with onetwelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon12.
relative formula mass The weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with
onetwelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon12.…read more

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See enthalpy.
standard solution A solution of known concentration. Standard solutions are normally
used in titrations to determine unknown information about another
standard state The physical state of a substance under the standard conditions of
100 kPa (1 atmosphere) and 298 K (25 °C).
stereoisomers Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different
arrangement of the atoms in space.
stoichiometry The molar relationship between the relative quantities of
substances taking part in a reaction.…read more


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