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acid A species that is a proton donor.

activation energy The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking
of bonds.

addition polymer A very long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions
of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers).

addition The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers)…

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atomic (proton) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

average bond The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by
enthalpy homolytic fission 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of
a gaseous species.

Avogadro constant, NA The number of atoms…

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cracking The breaking down of longchained saturated hydrocarbons to
form a mixture of shorterchained alkanes and alkenes.

curly arrow A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of
an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.

dative covalent A shared pair of electrons which…

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elimination reaction The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an
unsaturated molecule.

empirical formula The simplest wholenumber ratio of atoms of each element
present in a compound.

endothermic reaction A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the
enthalpy of the reactants,…

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functional group The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical

general formula The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous
series. For example, the general formula of the alkanes is CnH2n+2.

giant covalent lattice A threedimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong
covalent bonds.…

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hydrocarbon A compound of hydrogen and carbon only.

hydrogen bond A strong dipole­dipole attraction between an electrondeficient
hydrogen atom (O­H+ or N­H+) on one molecule and a lone pair
of electrons on a highly electronegative atom (H­O:­ or H­N:­)
on a different molecule.

hydrolysis A reaction with water or aqueous…

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mechanism A sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a

metallic bond The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and
delocalised electrons.

molar mass, M The mass mole of a substance. The units of molar mass are
g mol­1.

molar volume The volume per mole of…

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period A horizontal row of elements in the Periodic Table. Elements show
trends in properties across a period.

periodicity A regular periodic variation of properties of elements with atomic
number and position in the Periodic Table.

permanent dipole A small charge difference across a bond resulting from a
difference in…

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reflux The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to
ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the
flask boiling dry.

relative atomic mass, The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared
Ar with onetwelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon12.…

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standard enthalpies See enthalpy.

standard solution A solution of known concentration. Standard solutions are normally
used in titrations to determine unknown information about another

standard state The physical state of a substance under the standard conditions of
100 kPa (1 atmosphere) and 298 K (25 °C).

stereoisomers Compounds with…


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