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Basics on alcohols
· Alcohols are the family of compounds that
contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups
· General formula of an alcohol:
· C(n)H(2n+1)OH…read more

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How to name alcohols
Hydroxyl group
Naming suffix -ol THREE NEW FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
When alcohols are oxidised compounds belonging to three different
functional groups are possible :
Aldehyde:
·Functional group -CHO with carbonyl group at
the end of the chain
·End in ­al so CH3CHO is ethanal,
CH3CH2CHO propanal
R= alkyl or aryl group. Ketone:
Functional group ­CO with the carbonyl group in the
Primary Secondary Tertiary
middle of the chain
·End in ­one so CH3COCH3 is propanone,
CH3COCH2CH2CH3 is pentan-2-one and
CH3CH2COCH2CH3 pentan-3-one
Carboxylic acid
·Functional group -COOH with carboxyl
group at the end of the chain
·End in ­oic acid so CH3CH2COOH is
propanoic acid…read more

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Distinguishing Between Aldehydes
and Ketones
Heat with Tollens 3 drops of 3 drops of
ethanal propanone
Add dilute NH3(aq)
Add 1 drop until the precipitate
redissolves
NaOH (aq) Heat in a
water bath
brown precipitate colourless solution
3cm3 AgNO3
Heat with Fehling's 3 drops of 3 drops of
ethanal propanone
Heat in a
water bath
2 cm depth of Fehling's I + blue solution
2 cm depth of Fehling's II…read more

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Results
Heat with Tollens Heat with Fehlings
Aldehyde
Deposit of metallic Brick red precipitate
(e.g.ethanal)
silver is formed on the forms.
inside of test tube
(silver mirror)
CH3CHO + [O]
2Ag+ + RCHO + H2O CH3COOH
2Ag + RCOOH + H+
Ketone No change No change
(e.g.propanone)
Note that Fehling's
solution has no effect on
ketones, as ketones
cannot
be oxidised.…read more

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Physical properties
·Boiling point
The boiling points of organic
compounds depend on the type and
strength of the intermolecular
forces between molecules.
Name Propane Chloromethane Ethanol
Structural
Formula
Mr
Boiling point -42.2oC -24 oC 78.5oC
Covalent
Types of Van der walls
intermolecular
forces…read more

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