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AQA Psychology A
Unit 2- Biological Psychology
Stress management
Source- Nelson Thornes AQA Psychology A text book.…read more

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Coping with stress
COPE scale- questionnaire used to asses an individuals coping
strategies. It provides ratings on 15 different strategies. (Carver et al
Emotion-focused coping (EFC)- Problem-focused coping (PFC)-
targets the emotional impact of targets the causes of stress in
stressors, strategies include practical ways that directly
denial and seeking support from reduce the impact of the stressor.
friends. Vitaliano et al- said PFC used
Vitaliano et al- said EFC used for more with work problems.
problems with personal Lazarus and Folkman- PFC when
relationships. situation is seen as controllable.
Lazarus and Folkman- EFC is
used when stressor is out of
persons control.
Tennen et al (2000) studied daily coping styles in patients with chronic pain. They
found that different strategies were used simultaneously and that the different
style of coping are not independent, they interact. They also found that the
patient was responsive to the success or failure of a strategy and they would
change their coping style accordingly.…read more

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Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and
stress management
Meichenbaum's Stress Inoculation Therapy (SIT)
Conceptualisation- client identifies sources of stress in
their life. Keep a diary of stressful experiences during the
Skills training and rehearsal- client is taught skills to
address stressful situations in their life.
Application in the real world- after practising techniques
the client is encouraged to apply them to the real world.
The success or failure of the therapy is assesed.…read more

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Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and
stress management
Kobasa's hardiness training
Focusing- Client is encouraged to focus on the physiological
symptoms associated with stressful situations to help identify
sources of stress. Will also be helped to acquire new skills and
strategies for coping with stress.
Reconstructing stressful situations- Has to think about recent
stressful situations and how they could have been better or worse.
Looking at worse outcomes should help client become more
positive and optimistic.
Self-improvement- To improve clients sense of personal
effectiveness and control over life (self-efficacy). The client is
encouraged to take on manageable stress, the experience of
coping with these will improve sense of self-efficacy. The client
should feel more optimistic about dealing with stressors.…read more

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Benzodiazepines Beta-Blockers
Examples- Valium and Examples- Propranolol and
mogadon. alprenolol.
Often prescribed for stress/ They reduce heart rate and
anxiety associated with blood pressure.
bereavement. They act directly on the heart
Decreases/ inhibits and circulatory system.
noradrenaline and serotonin Useful in controlling bodily
activity. arousal.
Side effects- tiredness, They do not target the source
memory impairment and of stress so when drugs
impaired co-ordination. stopped the stress could
Ethical issues- patients not return.
usually capable of giving They do not have severe side
informed consent. effects because they act on
the body not the brain.…read more


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