# AS and A2 Physics Notes - OCR Advancing Physics B

Everything you need to know for AS and A2. Its got questions too.

- Created by: Hamed
- Created on: 21-05-11 17:25

First 33 words of the document:

A-level Physics

OCR B (Advancing Physics)

PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information.

PDF generated at: Fri, 20 May 2011 19:52:57 UTC

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Contents

Articles

AS 1

Optics 2

Lenses 2

Refraction 5

Communications 7

Digital Storage 7

Digital Processing 8

Digitisation 11

Signal Frequencies 13

Bandwidth 16

Electricity 17

Charge 17

Current 18

Voltage 19

Power 20

Resistance and Conductance 21

Internal Resistance 23

Potential Dividers 24

Sensors 26

Resistivity and Conductivity 28

Semiconductors 29

Material Structure 30

Stress, Strain & the Young Modulus 30

Metals 32

Polymers 33

Waves 36

What is a wave? 36

Phasors 39

Standing Waves 40…read more

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Young's Slits 42

Diffraction 45

Finding the Distance of a Remote Object 46

Quantum Physics 47

Light 47

Quantum Behaviour 49

Electron Behaviour 52

Mechanics 54

Vectors 54

Graphs 57

Kinematics 60

Forces and Power 62

A2 64

Decay 65

Exponential Relationships 65

Capacitors 67

Radioactive Decay 70

Half-lives 71

Gravity 73

Force 73

Field 75

Potential Energy 76

Potential 78

Mechanics 79

Simple Harmonic Motion 79

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 82

Damping 83

Resonance 84

Conservation of Momentum 86

Forces and Impulse in…read more

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Radar and Triangulation 91

Large Units 93

Orbits 94

Doppler Effect 95

The Big Bang 97

Thermodynamics 99

Heat and Energy 99

Specific Heat Capacity 100

Ideal Gases 101

Kinetic Theory 103

Boltzmann Factor 104

Magnetic Fields 107

Flux 107

Induction 108

Force 109

Transformers 112

Motors 114

Generators 116

Electric Fields 118

Force 118

Field 119

Potential 121

Potential Energy 122

Particle Physics 124

The Standard Model 124

Quarks 126

Bosons 127

Leptons 129

Millikan's Experiment 130

Pair Production and Annihilation 131

Particle Accelerators…read more

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Radioactive Emissions 138

Energy Levels 139

Fission 140

Fusion 141

Binding Energy 143

Risks, Doses and Dose Equivalents 145

Appendices 147

Trigonometry 147

Logarithms 148

Delta - 'difference in' 148

Sigma - 'sum of' 149

Derivation of Equations for Simple Harmonic Motion 149

Worked Solutions 151

Lenses 151

Refraction 152

Digital Storage 153

Digital Processing 154

Digitisation 155

Signal Frequencies 156

Bandwidth 157

Charge 158

Current 158

Voltage 159

Power 159

Resistance and Conductance 160

Internal Resistance 161

Potential Dividers 162

Sensors 163

Resistivity and…read more

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Young's Slits 171

Diffraction 172

Light 172

Electron Behaviour 173

Vectors 174

Graphs 175

Kinematics 178

Forces and Power 179

Exponential Relationships 179

Capacitors 181

Radioactive Decay 182

Half-lives 183

Gravitational Force 184

Gravitational Field 185

Gravitational Potential Energy 186

Gravitational Potential 187

Simple Harmonic Motion 188

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 190

Damping 191

Conservation of Momentum 193

Forces and Impulse in Collisions 195

Rockets, Hoses and Machine Guns 196

Circular Motion 197

Radar and Triangulation 198

Large Units 199

Orbits 199

Doppler Effect…read more

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Generators 210

Electric Force 211

Electric Field 212

Electric Potential 213

Electric Potential Energy 215

The Standard Model 215

Quarks 216

Bosons 216

Leptons 217

Millikan's Experiment 218

Pair Production and Annihilation 219

Particle Accelerators 220

Cloud Chambers and Mass Spectrometers 221

Radioactive Emissions 222

Energy Levels 223

Fission 224

Fusion 225

Binding Energy 225

Risks, Doses and Dose Equivalents 226

References

Article Sources and Contributors 227

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 231

Article Licenses

License 234…read more

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Optics

Lenses

Curvature of Wavefronts

Light can be viewed as beams travelling between points. However, from most light sources, the light radiates

outwards as a series of wavefronts. Light from a light source is bent - wavefronts of light have a property known as

curvature.

As light travels further away from its source, its curvature

decreases. Consider a sphere expanding gradually from a point,

which represents a given wavefront of light.…read more

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Lenses 3

The Lens Equation

Overall, then, the formula relating the curvature of the wavefronts

leaving a lens to the curvature of the wavefronts entering it is:

The lens equation, applied to a single pixel.

where v is the distance between the lens and the in-focus image formed, u is the distance between the lens and the

object which the in-focus image is of, and f is the focal length of the lens.…read more

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