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Physics AS ­ Level Summary

*Points to help remember definitions etc.

SCALARS AND VECTORS:

A SCALAR quantity has magnitude only and is completely described by a number and
appropriate units. *'scale' is a measure so magnitude only.
A VECTOR quantity is completely described only if both its magnitude and direction…

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GRAPHS OF MOTION:

Displacement-Time graphs:
The gradient is velocity so a straight line shows constant velocity and a curve shows
acceleration *m = y / x which is m/s or ms-1 which is what velocity is measured in.
Velocity-Time graphs:
The gradient shows acceleration *m = y / x which…

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Equilibrium is when the resultant forces are equal (and three forces make a closed triangle)

CENTRE OF GRAVITY:

The centre of gravity of an object is the single point through which the entire weight of the
object seems to act.
TEST TO FIND THE C.O.G.
1. The body is allowed…

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CAR SAFETY:

BREAKING DISTANCE is the distance travelled by the car from when the driver starts to brake
to when the car comes to a stop.
THINKING DISTANCE is the distance travelled while the driver is reacting. This can be
calculated by the SPEED OF THE VEHICLE X REACTION TIME.…

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The LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY is that energy cannot be created or destroyed but
may be converted from one form to another.
SANKEY DIAGRAMS can be used to represent this conversion of energy.

ENERGY AND WORK DONE:

Work done = force x distance moved in the direction of the…

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F = kx
On a graph when the graph is no longer a straight line the spring is permanently deformed.



Force

Work done or strain energy



Distance

The ELASTIC LIMIT is the maximum load up to which the spring regains its original length when
the load is removed.

STRAIN ENERGY:…

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Q, the wire, is usually ~2.0m and ~0.1mm2 thin to get a large extension.

ELASTIC AND PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR:

BRITTLE MATERIALS are elastic right up to the breaking point e.g. glass or cast iron.
DUCTILE MATERIALS have elastic behaviour initially, and then beyond a certain point the wire
stretches until it…

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