AQA Unit 2: Stress & Physical Illness


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Area Procedure Findings Evaluation
(et al.)
(lab exp, 39 p's) · Greater - Correlation causation.
· 1/3 stress-inducing tasks (maths test, myocardial - Ecological validity.
Stress &
Krantz Stroop test, public speaking). ischaemia = higher - Lab conditions.
(1991) · Blood pressure & extent vessels by heart increases in blood - Individual differences.
r System
contract (myocardial ischaemia) pressure.
(13,000 healthy people) · 256 heart attacks. - Extraneous variables.
Williams · 10-question anger scale. · Highest scoring
(2000) · 6 yrs later p's health checked. 2.5x more likely to
have a heart attack.
(pairs of monkeys) · Executive monkeys - Unethical.
Stress & · Given electric shocks every 20 secs for 6 more likely to - Cannot generalise.
Immune hours. develop ulcers and - Doesn't explain why
System · One monkey (executive) could push a later die. those with little control
lever to postpone shocks. over lives get stressed.
(394 p's) · Chance of - No direct manipulation
· Questionnaires on no. of stressful life developing a cold of IV thus no causality.
events in last year, rated degree of stress significantly - Doesn't determine
& level of negative emotions. correlated with which part of stress index
· 3 scores = stress index. stress index scores. most important.
· Exposed to common colds: 82% infected. - Protection from harm.
· Develop to clinical colds recorded.
(74 med students preparing for final · NK significantly - Didn't assess actual
exams) reduced in high illness outcomes.
Kiecolt- · Natural killer cell activity (NK) used as stress samples. - No manip of IV.
Glaser index of immune function. · Greatest - Reductions may be too
(1984) · NK measured 1 month before exams reductions when small to increase chances
(low stress) & during exams (high stress). highest social of stress related illnesses.
· Q's on -ve life events & social isolation. isolation.
(13 female Alzheimer's carers, 13 control) · Carers took on - Extraneous variables ­
· Punch biopsy used to create small average 9 days diet, lack of sleep, etc.
wound on arm. longer to heal. - Small sample.
- Gender specific.


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