AQA Chemistry GCSE Unit 11.1 - 11.6 Revision notes

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  • Created on: 02-11-09 22:57
Preview of AQA Chemistry GCSE Unit 11.1 - 11.6 Revision notes

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Chemistry Revision:
Atom = The smallest particle that can exist on its own which is the basic building block
of all matter.
Element = When lots of the same atom are gathered together, an element is formed.
Molecule = Two or more atoms chemically joined together which can be the same or
Compound = Two or more different atoms chemically joined together.
Limestone Cycle:
Limestone (calcium carbonate) [CaCO3] Quicklime (calcium oxide) [CaO (s)] Slaked Lime
(calcium hydroxide) [Ca(OH)2] Limewater (calcium hydroxide solution) [Ca(OH)2 (s)]
Limewater CO2 reacts with limewater to form tiny powdery bits of limestone. This is what
makes the limewater cloudy.
Uses of Limestone:
Buildings and roads
Glass (limestone is heated with sand and sodium carbonate)
Neutralise acidic soil and lakes affected by acid rain
Steel (Limestone removes impurities from furnace)
Cement (heat with clay) (gravel, sand and water) Concrete (water and sand)
Paper (used to whiten and provide bulk)
Cement, Concrete and Glass:
Cement is made by heating limestone and clay (or shale) that are ground up and put into kilns,
which rotate. To stop cement setting after adding water (hydration), a little gypsum (calcium
sulphate) is added. "Fingers" of crystals grow out of each grain of cement which bind the
mixture together.
Mortar is made of water and sand that is added to cement.
Concrete is made from water, gravel and sand that is added to cement. To make it stronger,
concrete is allowed to set around a steel support. The steel is stretched before the concrete
is poured in and then they let go which compresses the concrete.
Glass is made from 65% sand, 13% sodium carbonate, 12 % limestone and 10% recycled glass.
All the raw materials are heated together and this forms glass.
Different types of glass:
Windscreen windscreens on cars, to stop glass shattering
Shatterproof glass to prevent shattering, bus shelters
Pyrex heatproof glass, boiling tubes
Toughen glass it's stronger, big windows
Coloured glass made by adding other transition metals like copper (green), nickel
(yellow) and manganese (purple).
Chemistry Revision 2008 (Year 9)

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Conclusion of heating metals carbonates:
Most carbonates decompose when heated in a similar way to calcium carbonate
E.g. zinc carbonate zinc oxide + carbon dioxide
However, some decompose more easily than others.
Extraction of metals:
A mineral is a solid element or compound, which occurs naturally in the earth's crust.
An ore is a mineral with a high enough percentage of a metal to make it worth extracting.
Metal ores are a finite resource and are non-renewable.…read more

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Common (used everyday)
o Coloured (have coloured compounds)
o Catalysts (metals + compounds)
Solubility of transition metals:
Group 1 metals are soluble.
Transition metals are insoluble.…read more

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There are two ways to transport oil from the oilfield to the refinery.
o By pipeline
These are used when the oil is found reasonably close to the refinery.
o By oil tanker:
Oil tankers are giant ships and can be as long as 400m.
These are used when the oil needs to be transported to another country
or anywhere that is too far to use pipelines.
However, accidents at sea have great affects on wildlife.…read more

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Carbon dioxide is identified by limewater going cloudy.
Water is identified by white anhydrous (dry) copper sulphate going blue.
However, if there isn't enough oxygen present you can also make Carbon Monoxide
(CO) or just carbon (soot).
Diesel is particularly bad for producing unburnt hydrocarbons generally as
Acid Rain:
Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide causes acid rain.
Sulphur dioxide fossil fuels have sulphur as an impurity in it and when it is burnt, it
forms sulphur dioxide.…read more

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Some think that it is humans' emitting too much Carbon dioxide into the air that caused
the Global Warming.
Some believe that it is a natural change, however they believe that humans' are making
it happen quicker than it should be.
What can we do about it?
Planting more trees / reducing how much we cut down forest.
Burning less fossil fuels.
Catalytic converters in car exhausts.
Emitting less Carbon dioxide or other
greenhouse gases into the air.…read more

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Plants oils are unsaturated.
Animals Fats are saturated.
Oils are generally thought to be better for our health than saturated fats.
The darker fats were the same colour as the bromine water.
Ways of making alcohol:
1 ) Using sugar renewable
Glucose (yeast) Ethanol + Carbon dioxide
Water, yeast and a source of sugar are mixed at about 40 degrees C.
Enzymes, which are biological catalysts in the yeast, react with the sugar to make
ethanol and carbon dioxide.…read more

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This type of reaction is known as `polymerisation'.…read more

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Properties of plastics:
Thermosoftening (a.k.a. thermoplastics) soften easily and can be remoulded into any
shape. E.g. polythene bags (plastic bags).
Thermosetting (a.k.a. thermo sets) do not soften. When heated strongly enough, they
eventually breakdown and char. They are hard and rigid. E.g. melamine plates (plates
used for picnics).
Changing the properties of plastics:
Low density polythene.
High density polythene.
Mixing additives with plastics:
o Make plastics easier to mould and more flexible.…read more

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