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Chemistry Revision:

Atom = The smallest particle that can exist on its own which is the basic building block
of all matter.
Element = When lots of the same atom are gathered together, an element is formed.
Molecule = Two or more atoms chemically joined together which can be the…

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Conclusion of heating metals carbonates:

Most carbonates decompose when heated in a similar way to calcium carbonate
E.g. zinc carbonate zinc oxide + carbon dioxide
However, some decompose more easily than others.

Extraction of metals:

A mineral is a solid element or compound, which occurs naturally in the earth's crust.…

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o Common (used everyday)
o Coloured (have coloured compounds)
o Catalysts (metals + compounds)

Solubility of transition metals:
Group 1 metals are soluble.
Transition metals are insoluble.

Five common metals:
Copper used for water pipes
Chromium used in plated taps
Zinc used for water tank
Tungsten used for filaments in…

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There are two ways to transport oil from the oilfield to the refinery.
o By pipeline
These are used when the oil is found reasonably close to the refinery.
o By oil tanker:
Oil tankers are giant ships and can be as long as 400m.
These are used when the…

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Carbon dioxide is identified by limewater going cloudy.
Water is identified by white anhydrous (dry) copper sulphate going blue.
However, if there isn't enough oxygen present you can also make Carbon Monoxide
(CO) or just carbon (soot).
Diesel is particularly bad for producing unburnt hydrocarbons generally as

Acid Rain:…

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Some think that it is humans' emitting too much Carbon dioxide into the air that caused
the Global Warming.
Some believe that it is a natural change, however they believe that humans' are making
it happen quicker than it should be.

What can we do about it?
Planting more trees…

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Plants oils are unsaturated.
Animals Fats are saturated.
Oils are generally thought to be better for our health than saturated fats.

The darker fats were the same colour as the bromine water.

Ways of making alcohol:

1 ) Using sugar renewable
Glucose (yeast) Ethanol + Carbon dioxide


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This type of reaction is known as `polymerisation'.

Monomer Polymer Name Uses

Ethene Polyethene Plastic bags
(polythene) Washing up
Cups/ plastic

Chloroethene Polyvinylchloride Fake leather
(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Records

Polystyrene Packaging
Plastic cups

Tertrafluoro ethene Polotertaflueroethen Non-stick pan

Propene Polypropene Plastic rope
Fishing net



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Properties of plastics:
Thermosoftening (a.k.a. thermoplastics) soften easily and can be remoulded into any
shape. E.g. polythene bags (plastic bags).
Thermosetting (a.k.a. thermo sets) do not soften. When heated strongly enough, they
eventually breakdown and char. They are hard and rigid. E.g. melamine plates (plates
used for picnics).


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Land fill:
o Takes up lots of land.
o Long time to rot away.
o Can be reused.
o We can only recycle limited plastic.

Degradable plastics:
By light
o Plastics have atoms which absorb light energy.
o Energy splits groups of atoms they can now degrade more easily.…


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