Analysis chemistry aqa gcse

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  • Created on: 23-05-12 18:29
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How do we identify and analyse substances?
Flame tests ­ identify metal ions. Produce distinctive colours in flame tests.
Limewater test ­ CO2 cloudy/milky
Heating ­ Copper+zinc carbonate decompose and distinctive colour change.
Sodium hydroxide ­ Aluminium, calcium and magnesium white precipitates.
Copper (II), Iron (II)+(III) coloured precipitates
Dilute nitric acid ­ Silver chloride is white, Silver bromide is cream, Silver iodide is yellow.
Dilute hydrochloric acid ­ Sulfate ion, white precipitate.
Ammonia ­ Ammonium ions react with sodium hydroxide solution to form ammonia.
- Gas turns damp litmus paper blue.
- Nitrate ions are reduced by aluminium powder in the presence of sodium hydroxide to
. form ammonia.
Organic compounds ­ burn or char when heated in air.
Empirical formula can be found from the masses of the products formed
when a known mass of the compound is burned
Unsaturated containing double carbon carbon bonds decolourise bromine
water.
Instrumental methods ­ eg computing.
Accurate, sensitive and rapid.
Useful when very small sample.
Identifying elements=atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Identifying compounds=infrared spectroscopy, ultrared spectroscopy,
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas-liquid chromatography.
Mass spectrometry can be adopted for both.

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