AQA C2 chemistry audio specification revision

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Chemistry C2 Module
Facts to learn
Topic 1: Structure and Bonding
1. Atoms have a small central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons around which
there are electrons.
2. The relative electrical charges are Proton +1, Neutron 0, Electron -1
3. In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in the
4. Atoms have no overall electrical charge.
5. All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons.
6. Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons.
7. The number of protons in an atom is called its atomic number (proton number).
8. Atoms are arranged in the modern periodic table in order of their atomic number
(proton number).
9. Electrons occupy particular energy levels.
10. Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy level (in a particular shell).
11. The electrons in an atom occupy the lowest available energy levels (innermost
available shells).
12. Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number of electrons
in the highest energy levels (outer electrons).
13. Compounds are substances in which atoms of two, or more, elements are not just
mixed together but chemically combined.
14. Chemical bonding involves either transferring or sharing electrons in the highest
occupied energy levels (shells) of atoms.
15. When atoms form chemical bonds by transferring electrons, they form ions. Atoms
that lose electrons become positively charge ions.
16. Atoms that gain electrons become negatively charged ions. Ions have the electronic
structure of a noble gas (Group 0).
17. The elements in Group 1 of the periodic table, the Alkali metals, have similar
chemical properties. They all react with non-metals to form ionic compounds in
which the metal ion has a single positive charge.
18. The elements in Group 7 of the periodic table, the Halogens have similar chemical
properties. They react with the alkali metals to form ionic compounds in which the
halide ions have a single negative charge.
19. An ionic compound is a giant structure of ions.
20. Ionic compounds are held together by strong forces of attraction between
oppositely charged ions. These forces act in all directions in the lattice and this is
called ionic bonding.
21. When atoms share pairs of electrons, they form covalent bonds. These bonds
between atoms are strong. Some covalently bonded substances consist of simple
molecules such as hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, hydrogen chloride, water and
methane. Others have giant covalent structures (macromolecules), such as diamond
and silicon dioxide.
22. Metals consist of giant structures of atoms arranged in a regular pattern. The
electrons in the highest occupied energy levels (outer shell) of metal atoms are

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The attraction between
the positive ions and the delocalised electrons between is a metallic bond.
Topic 2: Structures and Properties
23. Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant ionic lattices) in which there are
strong electrostatic forces in all directions between oppositely charged ions. These
compounds have high melting points and high boiling points. When melted or
dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity because the ions are free to
move and carry the current.
24.…read more

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The amount of product obtained is known as the yield. When compared with the
maximum theoretical amount as a percentage, it is called the percentage yield.
33. The atom economy is a measure of the amount of starting materials that end up as
useful products. It is important for sustainable development and for economic
reasons to use reactions with high atom economy.
34. In some chemical reactions, the products of the reaction can react to produce the
original reactants. Such reactions are called reversible reactions.…read more

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Concentrations of solutions are given in moles per cubic decimetre. Equal volumes
of solutions of the same molar concentration contain the same number of moles of
solute, i.e. the same number of particles.
46. Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same
number of molecules.
47. The rate of a chemical reaction increases if a catalyst is used. Catalysts change the
rate of chemical reactions but are not used up during the reaction. Different
reactions need different catalysts.…read more

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Soluble salts can be made from acids by reacting them with alkalis, an indicator can
be used to show when the acid and alkali have completely reacted to produce a salt
65. Hydrochloric acid produces chlorides, Nitric acid produces nitrates, Sulfuric acid
produces sulfates
66. Salt solutions can be crystallised to produce solid salts.
67. Metal oxides and hydroxides are bases.
68. Soluble hydroxides are called alkalis.
69. In neutralisation reactions, hydrogen ions react with hydroxide ions to produce
70.…read more


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