AQA Chemistry Module C2 Revision booklet

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  • Created on: 21-04-11 09:08
Preview of AQA Chemistry Module C2 Revision booklet

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Chemistry 2 Revision
Atoms
Mass number is always the biggest number
Mass number = relative atomic mass
Mass number ­ atomic number = neutron number
+ and ­ charges tell you what type of ion the atom will form in
a chemical reaction.
o In sodium metal (Na+) there are only neutral sodium
atoms, Na.
o The Na+ ions will only appear if the sodium metal reacts
with something
Ionic Bonding
Atoms lose or gain electrons to form charges particles (called
ions) which are strongly attracted to one another.
Giant Ionic Structures
The ions form a closely packed regular lattice arrangement
There are very strong chemical bonds between all of the ions
When solid, the ions are held tightly together in giant ionic
structures so they're unable to move and conduct electricity.
When dissolved and molten, the ions are free to move and so
can conduct electricity.
Between metals and non-metals:
o Metal atoms and non-metal atoms go in opposite
directions when they ionise:

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Metal atoms lose the electron, or electrons, in their
highest energy level and become positively charged
ions.
Non-metal atoms gain an electron, or electrons,
from another atom to become negatively charged
ions.
E.g. A single crystal of salt is 1 giant ionic lattice, which is why
salt crystals tend to be cuboid in shape.
When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred
from the metal atoms to the non-metal atoms, forming ions.
The resulting compound is called anionic compound.…read more

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When dissolved the ions separate and are free to move in
the solution, so they'll carry electric current.
o Dissolved lithium salts are used to make rechargeable
batteries.
Conduct electricity when molten
o When an ionic substance melts, ions are free to move, and
they'll carry electric current.…read more

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Used for drill tips
o Has a very high melting point (almost 4000°C). Very
strong carbon-carbon covalent bonds have to be broken
throughout the structure before melting occurs.
o Is very hard. This is again due to the need to break very
strong covalent bonds operating in 3-dimensions.
o Doesn't conduct electricity. All the electrons are held
tightly between the atoms, and aren't free to move.
o Is insoluble in water and organic solvents.…read more

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Metallic Structures
Metals have giant structures
Metallic bonds have free electrons
The free electrons come from the outer shell of every metal
atom
The electrons are free to move and so metals are good
conductors of heat and electricity
These electrons also hold the atoms together in a regular
structure
They also allow the atoms to slide over each other, causing
metals to be malleable.…read more

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Nanomaterials
Really tiny particles
Fullerens molecules of carbon
Each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds, with its
neighbours, leaving free electrons that can conduct
electricity
Smallest fullerene is buckminster fullerene 60 carbon
atoms formed in a ball
Useful properties
o Have a huge SQ ­ help make great industrial
catalysts ­ individual catalyst molecules could be
attached to carbon nanotubes
o With nanoparticles, build surfaces with very specific
properties
o You can use them to make sensors to detects 1 types
of molecule and nothing…read more

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Relative formula Mass (Mr)
Example:
MgCl2
24 + 12 + (35.…read more

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Underneath them, write their experimental masses or
percentages
3) Divide each mass or percentage by the Ar for that particular
element
4) Turn the numbers you get into a ratio by multiplying them by
numbers
5) Get the ratio in its simplest form
Example:
Find the empirical formula of the iron oxide produced when 44.8g of
iron reacts with 19.2 g of oxygen.
Ar for Iron = 56 Ar for oxygen = 16
1) Fe O
2) 44.8 19.2
3) 44.8/56 = 0.8 19.…read more

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Example:
What mass of magnesium oxide is produced when 60g of magnesium
is burned in air?
1) Balanced equation
2Mg + O2 2 MgO
2) Work out the Mr:
2 x 24 2 x (24+16)
48 80
3) Rule: divide for fist then multiply
48g of Mg reacts to give 80g of MgO
1g of Mg reacts to give 1.…read more

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Mass in grams (of element of compound)
N umber of M oles = M r of element or compound
Example:
How many moles are there in 42g of carbon?
Number of moles = mass (g)/Mr = 42/12 = 3.5 moles
1 mole of solution contains 1 mole per litre
number of moles = volume in Litres ×moles per litre of solution
Example:
How many moles in 185cm3 of 2 m of solution?
0.185 x 2 = 0.…read more

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