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The Periodic Table
· Atomic number- how many protons the
element contains
· Groups- vertical columns, group number is
equal to the number of electrons in the
outer shell
· Periods- horizontal rows, equal to the
number of shells an element has…read more

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Group 1: The Alkali Metals
· Soft- can be cut with a knife
· Very reactive- have to be stored in oil
· Get more reactive as you go down the group (last
electron further away from attractive force of the nucleus
and therefore easier to lose)
· Low melting and boiling points that get lower as you go
down the group
· 1 electron in outer level (lost when reacting to form ionic
compounds that are white and soluble)
· Conduct heat & electricity
· Have a low density…read more

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Group 7: The Halogens
· Have coloured vapours
· Do not conduct
· Low melt & boil points that get higher as you go
down the group
· Reactivity gets less as you go down the group
(outer shell further away from attractive force of
nucleus, therefore harder to attract electrons)
· Made of diatomic molecules (eg Cl2)
· React with metals to form ionic compounds
· React with non metals to form covalent
compounds…read more

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The Transition Metals
· Between groups 2 and 3
· Hard & strong
· Conduct
· High density
· High melt & boil points
· Unreactive
· Used as catalysts
· Can form ions with different charges
· Have coloured compounds
· Have special properties due to special structure (18 electrons in 3rd
shell):
­ 2,8,8
­ 2,8,8,2
­ 2,8,18,2
­ 2,8,18,3 etc (obviously with elements in between)…read more

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Development of the Periodic Table
· Newlands:
­ Ordered them in order of mass
­ Saw the law of Octaves (similar properties every eighth
element)
­ BUT only worked up until calcium
­ Disregarded
· Mendeleev:
­ Ordered them in order of mass but left spaces for new elements
­ Moved some elements around so that he actually ended up
ordering them according to atomic number, not mass
­ Made predictions about new elements that were proved
­ Accepted after predictions came true
­ Modern table based on his…read more

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