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Sanmeet Singh

Notes for Sociology
Class Difference in Achievement- External Factors

Explaining class differences

Social class background has a powerful influence on a child's chance of success in the
education system.
One explanation of class differences in achievement is that better off parent can
afford to send their children to…

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Sanmeet Singh

values of their class to their children through primary socialisation. Middle class values
equip children for success, whereas working class values fail to do this.

Compensatory education- is a policy designed to tackle the problem of cultural capital
by providing extra resources to schools in deprived areas. E.g.…

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Sanmeet Singh

Financial support and the costs of education

A lack of financial support means that children from poor families have to miss out
on experiences that would enhance their educational achievement. Bull (1980) refers
to this as 'the costs of free schooling'.
Tanner (2003) found that the cost of…

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Sanmeet Singh

documentaries developed greater cultural knowledge thus a higher cultural capital.
These pupils were more likely to be successful at GCSE.
However, she also found that these students with greater cultural capital were more
likely to be middle class.

Gewirtz: Marketisation and Parental Choice

One example of how cultural…

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Sanmeet Singh

Ray Rist's study found that the teachers used information e.g. home background to
place them in separate groups. 'Tigers' were the fast learners and tended to be
majority middle class. They had a clean appearance and were given the greatest
'Clowns' and 'Cardinals' were seated further back…

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Sanmeet Singh

This creates the SFP in which pupils live up to their teachers' low expectations by
underachieving. By contrast, middle class pupils tend to benefit as they are closer to
the 'ideal pupil'.

Pupil Subcultures

A pupil subculture is a group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour…

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Sanmeet Singh

Since Ball's study, the Education Reform Act (1988) has shown a trend towards more
streaming and towards a variety of types of school which creates new opportunites
for differentiation.

The variety of pupil responses

Peter Woods (1979) argues that there are other responses to labelling and
streaming other…

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Sanmeet Singh

Competition and Selection

Marketisation also explains why schools are under pressure to select more able,
largely middle class pupils who will gain the school a higher ranking in the league
tables leading to even more able pupils joining the school thus increasing funding and
making the school popular.…

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Sanmeet Singh

The DfES also tells us that within every ethnic group, the middle class do better than
the working class pupils.
They also tell us that among all groups other than Gypsy/Roma children, girls
outperform boys.

External factors and ethnic differences in achievement

Cultural Deprivation

Intellectual and Linguistic skills-…

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Sanmeet Singh

Working class people are more likely to face poverty and material deprivation.
Educational failure is a result of factors such as low income and substandard housing.

Flaherty argues that ethnic minorities are more likely to face these problems: For example:

Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are over three times more…




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Stormy Music


Wow brilliant resource Sanmeet, thanks for uploading :-D



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zahra abbas


really helped. thnx!

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