AQA Additional Science - Biology Revision Questions

A set of revision questions and answers for additonal biology :)

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  • Created on: 02-01-13 12:45
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Biology Revision Questions:
What are the parts of a plant cell?
Cell wall, Cell membrane, chloroplasts, ribosomes, nucleus, cytoplasm, permanent vacuole.
What are the parts of a human cell?
Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, ribosome, mitochondria.
What is the job of the root hair cell and how is it specialised?
It has a large surface area to absorb minerals, nutrients, ions and water etc from the soil.
What is the job of the palisade cell and how is it specialised?
They are on the upper-side of a leaf, with chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
What is the job of the xylem cell and how is it specialised?
They are long, thin hollow cells with no cytoplasm. They are dead and transport water through the
stem and root of a plant.
What is the job of the nerve cell and how is it specialised?
It has axons which carry nerve impulses.
What is the job of the ovum/egg cell and how is it specialised?
They are large to store food for an embryo and for fertilisation.
What is the job of the sperm cell and how is it specialised?
It is in the testes has a long tail and a streamline head so it is a fast swimmer. It fertilises the egg cell.
What is the job of the red blood cell and how is it specialised.
It has no nucleus as they are full of haemoglobin to transport oxygen around the body through veins
etc.
What is the job of the white blood cell and how is it specialised?
They can change their shape to destroy microbes.
What is the job of the goblet cell and how is it specialised?
It is in the lining of the digestive system to create mucus to trap microbes and help food get to the
stomach.
What is the job of the guard cell and how is it specialised?
They are on the underside of a leaf and they can open and close to allow gas exchange.
What is the cilia cell and how is it specialised?
It lines the trachea, nose, throat and lung. It has small hairs to sweep waste substances, mucus and
filter the air towards the mouth.
What is diffusion?
The movement of particles across a semi-permeable membrane from a region of high concentration
to low concentration.
What is osmosis?

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The diffusion of water particles from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution through a partially
permeable membrane.
What happens to an animal cell when osmosis occurs?
Water diffused into the cell, which bursts and dies, water moves out of the cell so the cell shrinks.
What happens to a plant cell when osmosis occurs?
Water diffused into the cell an then leaves so the inside of the cell shrivel, not the outside, as the
membrane pulls away from the wall.…read more

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What is biomass?
The mass of living material.
How is energy lost along the food chain?
The producers only absorb little of the suns energy, and little of that is eaten by the consumer and so
on. Movement, excretions, heat energy.
What are the best conditions for decay?
Warm, moist, lots of oxygen.
What is decay?
Micro-organisms (detritus feeders) break down the deceased material.
Where do we deliberately used micro-organisms?
Sewers to break down faeces, compost heaps to break down plant material waste.…read more

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Where is lipase made?
Pancreas and small intestine.
Where is amylase made?
Salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine.
What is the function of bile?
It neutralises excess stomach acid, to produce alkaline conditions which the enzymes in the small
intestine work best. It emulsifies (breaks down) fats to increase their surface area so they are
digested easier.
Where is bile produced?
In the liver and stored in the gall bladder.…read more

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What is gas exchange?
Lungs have thin walls with a large surface area so gas carbon dioxide diffused from the blood into the
alveoli while oxygen diffuses in the opposite direction.
What happens to the lungs when we breathe in?
Inspirations ­ the intercostal muscles contract moving the ribcage up, the diaphragm moves down, air
pressure decreases as air is sucked in.…read more

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How many chromosomes are there in a sex cell?
23
Why do the sex cells only have 23 chromosomes?
So that the embryo will get 23 chromosomes from each parent making it 23.
What does haploid and diploid mean?
Haploid means half of the number of chromosomes, diploid means double the haploid number.…read more

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dondgyalnaisha

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