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Animal Cells
· nucleus: contains genetic material that controls the
Life & Cells activities of the cell
· cytoplasm: where chemical reactions happen and
contains enzymes which control them
· cell membrane: holds the cell together and controls
what goes in and out
· mitochondria: reactions for respiration take place,
releases energy that cells need to work
· ribosomes: where proteins are made in the cell
Plant Cells
have all the bits in the animal cells and:
· cell wall: made of cellulose, supports and
strengthens the cell
· vacuole: contains cell sap, weak solution of sugar
and salts
· chloroplasts: contains chlorophyll, where
photosynthesis occurs…read more

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Specialized Cells
Palisade Leaf Cells: Adapted For Photosynthesis
· packed with chloroplast especially at the top of the cell, so they're nearer the light
· tall shape means a lot of surface area exposed down the side for absorbing CO2
· thin shape so loads of them can fit at the top of a leaf
· grouped together to give the palisade layer of a leaf where most of the photosynthesis happens
Guard Cells: Adapted to Open & Close Pores
· special kidney shape which has thin outer walls
and thickened inner walls
· when the plant has lots of water the guard cells
fill with it and go plump and turgid, causing the
stomata to open so gases can be exchanged for
· when the plant is short of water the guard cells
lose water and become flaccid making the stomata
close which stops too much water vapour escaping
· sensitive to light and close at night to save water
without losing out on photosynthesis
· adapted to their function of allowing gas
exchanges and controlling water loss within the
leaf organ…read more

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Specialized Cells
Red Blood Cells: Adapted To Carry Oxygen
· concave shape gives a big surface area for absorbing oxygen and helps it pass smoothly
through capillaries to reach body cells
· packed with haemoglobin, the pigment that absorbs oxygen
· no nucleus, to have more room for haemoglobin
Sperm & Egg Cells: Adapted For Reproduction
· main function of an egg cell is to carry the
female DNA and to nourish the developing embryo
in the early stages, it contains huge food reserves
· when a sperm fuses with the egg, the egg's
membrane instantly changes its structure to stop
any more sperm from getting in, to insure the
offspring ends up with the right amount of DNA
· main function of a sperm cell is to get the male
DNA to the female DNA, it has a long tail,
streamlined head to help it swim and lots of
mitochondria to provide energy, they also carry
enzymes in their head to digest through the egg
cell membrane…read more

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Diffusion is the passive movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an
area of low concentration.
· It is the movement of particles from places where there are lots of
them to places where there are fewer of them, spreading out.
· Diffusion happens in liquids and gases because the particles are free
to move about randomly.
· The bigger the difference in concentration, the faster the diffusion
· The rate of diffusion depends on:
· distance ­ quicker when they are closer
· concentration gradient ­ faster when there is a larger difference
in concentration
· surface area ­ more surface there is to move across the faster
they can get to the other side…read more

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