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Page 1

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Rivers

General Information
- Waterfall [High Force, River Tees]
- Cuspate delta [River Tiber, Italy]
- Arcuate delta [River Nile, Egypt]
- Bird's foot delta [Mississippi River, USA]
- Incised meanders [Grand Canyon, USA]
- River terraces [River Cam & River Isis, England]


Carlisle Flooding

Overview
- River Eden
-…

Page 2

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Economic Impacts
- Damages of £100million
- 70,000 addresses with no power
- 350 businesses closed
- Warwick Rd severely damaged

Environmental Impacts
- Increased discharge increased bank erosion
- Rivers became polluted with rubbish and sewage

After such serious flooding there was significant pressure placed on the council from…

Page 3

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South East Asia Flooding

Overview
- This area floods annually because of the Monsoon rains
- In July & August of 2007 flooding was worse than usual
- 80% of residents work in farming

Physical Causes
- Sudden arrival of rains on parched land
- 900mm of rainfall in July…

Page 4

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Responses
- Devised a flood action plan (FAP)
- Known as the Jamalpur Priority Project
- Considered 4 schemes
- Compartmentalisation was chosen
- This allows controlled flooding with the deposition of alluvium
- Stimulated economic growth whilst preventing the spread of disease

Evaluating the Policy
The policy does come…

Page 5

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Coasts

General Information
- Sediment Source [Flamborough Head, Holderness, England]
- Headlands & bays [Swanage Bay, Dorset, England]
- Wave-cut platform [Southerndown, Wales]
- Caves, Arches, Stacks & Stumps [Durdle Door, Dorset, England]
- Spit [Spurn Point, Holderness, England]
- Bar [Slapton Ley, Devon, England]
- Tombolo [Chesil Beach, Dorset,…

Page 6

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Human Causes
- Cliff top development
- Protection in some areas worsens erosion elsewhere
- Groynes at Withernsea are one such example

However, despite this worsening erosion elsewhere it is expected that slowly beaches
will reorientate themselves and therefore naturally retain sediment.

Socio-economic Impacts
- Negative equity on houses
-…

Page 7

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Responses
- 32,000 evacuated
- Thames Barrier constructed
- Sea wall and groynes installed at Sea Palling
- Flood warning system introduced
- Storm & Tides Office established


Coastal Flooding - Hurricane Katrina
This was one of the worst storms to hit the USA in living memory. It had a…

Page 8

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Hard Engineering ­ Lyme Regis

Overview
- Small coastal town
- Jurassic Coast, Dorset
- Erosion put the essential tourism industry in jeopardy

Causes of Erosion
- Strong South-westerly winds from the Atlantic
- Base rock of shale and limestone
- This slopes towards the sea
- Looser clays which…

Page 9

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Construction Stage

- Used car parks ­ impact minimised by introducing a park and ride scheme
- Specific request to keep beaches open - successfully met
- People actual visited to see the works ­ extra 2,000 visitors

Decision Making

- Carried out cost benefit analysis
- Enabled the large…

Page 10

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Effectiveness
Was chosen because of the following reasons:

- Opportunity to create large natural habitat
- Remote location with limited public interest
- Wallasea Farms supported the project

Conclusions
- Completed at a cost of £8 million
- Covers 115ha
- Hugely successful
- Harbours wildlife
- Acts as a…

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