Physical Geography Case Studies

This doccument includes all of the necessary case studies for the Rivers and Coasts topics of the AQA Geography AS level specification. Case studies are of course relevant to different exam boards.

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  • Created by: josh-95
  • Created on: 22-04-16 16:31
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Rivers
General Information
- Waterfall [High Force, River Tees]
- Cuspate delta [River Tiber, Italy]
- Arcuate delta [River Nile, Egypt]
- Bird's foot delta [Mississippi River, USA]
- Incised meanders [Grand Canyon, USA]
- River terraces [River Cam & River Isis, England]
Carlisle Flooding
Overview
- River Eden
- 8th January 2005
- 175mm of rain in 36 hours
Physical Causes
- Heavy rainfall
- Already saturated ground
- Steep relief
- Large peak discharge (1520 cumecs)
- Large basin
Human Causes
- Urbanisation increasing surface runoff
- Deforestation reducing interception
- Overflowing drains
- Climate change
Social Impacts
- 3 deaths
- 3,000 people homeless
- Newman school closed until Easter
- Temporary accommodation made available
- 33 redundancies at United Biscuits
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Economic Impacts
- Damages of £100million
- 70,000 addresses with no power
- 350 businesses closed
- Warwick Rd severely damaged
Environmental Impacts
- Increased discharge increased bank erosion
- Rivers became polluted with rubbish and sewage
After such serious flooding there was significant pressure placed on the council from
local residents and the media to ensure that plans were put into place to prevent such an
incident occurring again.…read more

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South East Asia Flooding
Overview
- This area floods annually because of the Monsoon rains
- In July & August of 2007 flooding was worse than usual
- 80% of residents work in farming
Physical Causes
- Sudden arrival of rains on parched land
- 900mm of rainfall in July
- Peak discharges of R.Ganges & R.…read more

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Responses
- Devised a flood action plan (FAP)
- Known as the Jamalpur Priority Project
- Considered 4 schemes
- Compartmentalisation was chosen
- This allows controlled flooding with the deposition of alluvium
- Stimulated economic growth whilst preventing the spread of disease
Evaluating the Policy
The policy does come with a main problem. Compartmentalisation would involve
constructing embankments very close to the river edge.…read more

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Coasts
General Information
- Sediment Source [Flamborough Head, Holderness, England]
- Headlands & bays [Swanage Bay, Dorset, England]
- Wave-cut platform [Southerndown, Wales]
- Caves, Arches, Stacks & Stumps [Durdle Door, Dorset, England]
- Spit [Spurn Point, Holderness, England]
- Bar [Slapton Ley, Devon, England]
- Tombolo [Chesil Beach, Dorset, England]
- Sand dunes [Pilat, France & Studland, England]
- Salt marsh [Portsmouth, England]
Dorset Coastline Case Study
The Dorset coastline has a varied lithology giving rise to some of the most recognisable
coastal landforms…read more

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Human Causes
- Cliff top development
- Protection in some areas worsens erosion elsewhere
- Groynes at Withernsea are one such example
However, despite this worsening erosion elsewhere it is expected that slowly beaches
will reorientate themselves and therefore naturally retain sediment.…read more

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Responses
- 32,000 evacuated
- Thames Barrier constructed
- Sea wall and groynes installed at Sea Palling
- Flood warning system introduced
- Storm & Tides Office established
Coastal Flooding - Hurricane Katrina
This was one of the worst storms to hit the USA in living memory. It had a number of
causes which led to catastrophic impacts, many of which people think was preventable
or could have been dealt with better.…read more

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Hard Engineering ­ Lyme Regis
Overview
- Small coastal town
- Jurassic Coast, Dorset
- Erosion put the essential tourism industry in jeopardy
Causes of Erosion
- Strong South-westerly winds from the Atlantic
- Base rock of shale and limestone
- This slopes towards the sea
- Looser clays which sit on top are lubricated
- Mass movement occurs
- Wave attack worsens this further
Scheme
With tourism generating £830 million a year the council devised a stage approach to
combat the problem.…read more

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Construction Stage
- Used car parks ­ impact minimised by introducing a park and ride scheme
- Specific request to keep beaches open - successfully met
- People actual visited to see the works ­ extra 2,000 visitors
Decision Making
- Carried out cost benefit analysis
- Enabled the large costs to be justified
- Concluded the costs of doing nothing were greater than the cost of the scheme
Soft Engineering ­ Wallasea Island
Overview
- South side of the Crouch Estuary, Essex
- Feeds…read more

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Effectiveness
Was chosen because of the following reasons:
- Opportunity to create large natural habitat
- Remote location with limited public interest
- Wallasea Farms supported the project
Conclusions
- Completed at a cost of £8 million
- Covers 115ha
- Hugely successful
- Harbours wildlife
- Acts as a natural barrier
- Tourism industry has developed in the area
- RSPB has extended the good work
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