AQA A2 Geography World Cities: Counter-Urbanisation

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  • Created on: 27-10-13 17:45
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Counter-urbanisation is the movement of people away from large urban areas to smaller settlements in
rural areas.
Push Factors Pull Factors
Many people move out of urban areas to escape the Improved communication services make it easier for
air and noise pollution of towns and cities people to live in rural areas and work from home
Suburbs and city centres often have problems with People think that living somewhere quieter and with
congestion and parking more open space will improve their quality of life
As suburban areas become more popular house Houses in smaller settlements and rural areas are
prices rise and so people feel they are not getting often less densely packed than those in city centres
value for money and move further away from the and the suburbs, this means houses are often bigger
city and have more outdoor space
Urban renewal processes during the 50's and 60's Technological improvements mean some companies
meant that due to slum clearance, large numbers of no longer need to be in a city centre to do business
people were moved to council estates on the edge and can move to rural areas where land is cheaper
of the city which creates jobs in rural areas
Increased car ownership and improved rail services
mean that people can live further from the city to
commute to work
Counter-Urbanisation has Impacts on Rural Areas
Positive Impacts Negative Impacts
Some services see an increase in businesses Development can affect the character of rural
This is because the newer residents are often settlements
professionals or retired people who have higher
disposable income
In some villages the existing houses are improved as There is more demand for houses so house prices
farm buildings are renovated and upgraded increase
Farmers are able to make money by selling Younger people may not be able to afford to buy a
unwanted land or buildings for housing house which can mean the population is dominated
developments by older people
In some rural areas schools have closed due to lack Rural roads and infrastructure may struggle to cope
of pupils, however if families move to rural areas with the additional traffic
then schools can stay open and children of existing This can cause congestion and increase air pollution
residents can continue to go to school locally in rural areas
Dormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit Schools may close if the new residents are older
people rather than families with children
Lack of appreciation of traditional customs of village Some rural shops and services may close ­ wealthier
life by newcomers ­ change in community spirit residents who own cars are more likely to travel to
use shops and services in urban areas

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Case Study: St Ives, Cambridgeshire
St Ives in Cambridgeshire is about 70 miles North of London.
The town has grown through counter-urbanisation.
In 1961 its population was just 3,800 and by 2010 had reached 16,400.
It has good road access and rail links to Cambridge and London.
Many people commute into Cambridge and around a quarter of the working population commute into
London each day.…read more

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