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English Language
Groupings, Power and Gender…read more

Slide 2

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Genre Participants
Audience Role
Essentials Situation
Types of power - Wareing
1. Authority
2. Influential
3. Hierarchical/status
4. Personal (role, social
Implied Reader & Implied Speaker 5. knowledge/expertise Tone/Formalit
6. Instrumental y
Genre 7. Ideological/political
Spoken language features: fillers (verbal
& non-verbal), hesitations, pauses, false
starts, hedging, back-channelling, repairs,
vocatives, vague language, pauses, turn-
taking, phatic token, ellipsis, discourse
markers, elision, adjacency pairs, tag
questions, interruptions
Connotations/denotation…read more

Slide 3

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· Synthetic Personalisation - Advertiser is seen as human with the same
emotions as the consumer instead of a faceless organisation so they
would want the best for the consumer as they are on their level and know
how annoying it is when people try to con you.
· Building the Consumer - Consumer is seen as ideal and have the same
ideologies as the advertiser. The advert is placed where the consumer will
see it making them feel as if the product was designed specifically for
· Creating an image of a text - The advert uses visual and verbal clues to
evoke knowledge the reader already has. EG: connotations of linguistic
choices - flip = active. This makes the reader feel as if they are on the
same level as the product designer meaning they are more likely to go out
and buy it as the product has been "made specifically for them".
· shows that many interactions are `unequal encounters'. He felt that '
every piece of discourse is a negotiation of power'. Language choices are
created and constrained by certain `power' situations e.g.
manager/worker. Doctor/patient conversation or in a text with the use of
stereotypes or other ideological issues. All conversations are either
symmetrical or asymmetrical. The most straightforward to think about
symmetry is to analyse who talks the most. Most often, that is the…read more

Slide 4

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Possible groupings/stuff to analyse
· Modification (common in advertisements, reviews, menus, newspaper headlines,
descriptive writing)
· Modals (could, should, would, might, ought to, must, can, will, may, shall)
· Imperatives
· Directive
· Direct address
· Specialist lexis
· Conditionals
· Minor sentences
· Questions (rhetorical or known answer etc..)
· Simple sentence
· Exclamative
· Declarative/statement
· Repetition
· Pronoun reference (pronoun substituted for a noun)
· Ellipsis
· Positive/negative adjectives
· Phatic token (other or self related)
· Non standard English…read more

Slide 5

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Grice's Cooperative Principle
Maxim of Quality (truthful)
Maxim of Quantity (how much said)
Maxim of relation (relevance)
Maxim of manner (clarity)
Implicature (implied meaning through flouting)
Violating (not following doesn't create an implied meaning)
Flouting (creating an implied meaning by not following)
· Brown and Levinson's Face Theory
Positive face needs (to feel accepted/included & to feel appreciated/valued, to have options)
Negative Face needs( not to be imposed on & not to be ordered around/prevented from doing things)
Face Threatening Act (threatening someone's face needs)
· Sinclair and Coulthard's IRF/Classroom language
Initiation, Response, Feedback (Adjacency triplets)/turn taking rules
Nominating turns
Known answer questions
Discourse markers(structure lesson)
· Drew and Heritage "Institutional talk"
Goal orientation
Turn-taking rules/restrictions
Allowable contributions
Professional lexis
· Doctor's power/diagnostic interview
History-taking, physical examination, diagnosis, management/treatment
Schema ­ mental model
Candace West found that female doctors use more mitigated directives, males use more aggravated directives
· Legal language
Fossilised forms, Precise, coherent, unambiguous, Repetition of meaning, Vague terms, Precise/unchangeable words, Modal verbs,
Lack punctuations…read more

Slide 6

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· Phonology can be used to show power through
stressing words/drawing attention to them by
elongating sounds
· Ethnic minorities are a disadvantage due to stigma
attached to their dialect
· Standard English ­ social power
· A person can take control despite of not being in a
position of power e.g. disruptive student
· Age ­ young/old feel voice is not being heard
· Men often have more power in conversation (can
bring in gender theorist)…read more

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