Morphology- how words are composed
Phonetics (IPA)- International Phonetic Alphabet
CDS- Child Directed Speech (Changing the lexis)
Conversation Theory- how we open/ end a conversation
Pragmatics- The underline meaning of what we say
Child Language Theorists
- Believes that children are inhereted with the ability to learn any human language
- Language Aquisiton Device
- Believes that children do not think like adults
- Through interaction with environment children construct their own understanding
- Responds to Chomsky's LAD
- Believed that that parents often use books and images to support child's naming abilities
- Language Aquisition Support System (LASS)
Child Language Theorists 2
Burrhas Fredric Skinner
- Behaivourism- states that all behaviour is conditioned e.g. punished or rewarded until it becomes natural and automatic.
- Going against Chomsky
- Quantity- not too much, not too little
- Relevance- relevent to the topic of conversation
- Manner- be clear and ordered
- Quality- truth
- Consists of three maxims:
1) Don't impose (Would it be alright to?...)
2) Give options (If you want to you can...)
3) Give receiver positive feelings (I'm really glad you are here...)
1) Instrumental- cause things to happen "give it to me"
2) Regulatory- control events or behaviour "he hit me"
3) Representation- communicate ideas or knowledge "i have two pennies"
4) Interactional- to get along with others "sit with me"
5) Personal- express personality, feelings or emotions "i sad"
6) Hearistic- aquire knowledge "show me"
7) Imaginative- create imaginative word "i pretend i am on a train"
John Dore- Infant Language Functions
- Labelling- Cat, Dog
- Repeating- Repeating what grown up has said
- Answering- answering a question
- Requesting- "Can i have that one please?"
- Calling- "daddy"
- Greeting-"Hello Daddy"
- Proesting- "I don't want a bath"
- Practising- "nanna", "no bananna", "bananna"
Article- Shows if a reference to a noun is general-"the","a"
Adverb- a class of word that modifes verb depending on time, place, manner- "There", "in"
Noun- Name of a person, place, thing or concept- "tree", "Mr.Tulloch"
Adjective-describing word- "pretty", "sunny"
Verb- word that describes an action- "hear"
Pronouns- refers to other participants in conversation- "he", "she", "them"
Prepositions- expressing a relation to another word- "on", "after"
Main clause- makes sense on its own
Subordinate clause- does not make sense on its own
Determiner- always goes infront of a noun-"a", "the"
Referential utterance- gives information by referring to objects or concepts "vase"
Transactional utterance- making some sort of deal
Phatic utterance- social function more that serious meaning "hello"
Interactional utterance- exchanger related to social relationship
expresive utterance- expresses feeling
Broadening- where meaning of word broadens
Narrowing- word becomes more specific- "girl used to mean young people but now means female"
Amelioration- meaning of word is more pleasant or more positive "pretty used to mean sly"
Pejoration- meaning of word is less pleasant or more negative
Weakening- word loses original strength over time
Metaphor- describes something as something else- "onion bag means football goal"
Idiom- word that cannot be understood from meaning need to know context- "in the doghouse"
Euphemism- mild or inoffensive of describing somehting distasteful or unpleasant
Political Correctness- attempt to replace words or expressions that are considered offensive- "mixed race" replaces " half caste"
Reference- something in sentance or text refers to something else-"my grear grandfather"
Ellipsis- where elements are ommited from a sentance
Repetition- repeating a word
Collocation-tendency for certain words to occur together.- in a review of a play, you would expect to see the words "actor" "director"
Phoneme- smallest unit of sound in language- B-A-T
Syllable- single unit of speech- string is made up of three syllables str-i-ng
Prosodic features- Stress, intonation, tempo, pauses, oral signals, pronunciation
Conversation theory keywords
Adjacency pairs- e.g. a greeting usually consists of a greeting and an answer
Holding/ giving up floor
Accomodation theory keyword
Convergence- users speech moves to same level
Divergence- where one or all speakers intentially keeps speech on different levels
Upward convergence- one speaker improves speech
Downward convergence- one speaker decreases quality of speech
Mutual convergence- both speakers change speech
Denotation- literal meaning of word 'red is just a colour'
Connotation- things associated with word 'red can suggest anger'
Anaphoric reference- refers back to something previous in conversation
Cataphoric reference- refers forward to something in conversation
RP and SE theorists
Kerswill- those with a high level of education and higher paid jobs speak closer to standard language than others.
Sociolect- variety of language associated with a social group
Argot- a secret language to stop outsiders understanding conversation
Restricted code- a phrase that only those involved in conversation understand
Elaborated code- a phrase that anyone can understand
Language and social class theorists
Labov- studied pronunciation of 'r' in words such as "farm", "floor". found that middle class use 'r' more than lower middle class.
Trudgill- examined relationship between social class and number of linguistic variables. found that pronunciation of 'ing' increased according to formality of conversation. dound that those lower down in class tend to drog 'g' sound.
Petyt- examined dropping of 'h' sound from beginning of words. found a close relationship between 'h' and social class. higher the class, less likely.
Information,non-standard words and expressions used in casual speech
Identifies you with your social group (sociolect)
Acts as a code to exclude outsiders
Seen as informal so innapropriate in formal situations
Slang and Jargon
Types of Slang
New meanings fot existing words
Shortening/abbreviating of words
Specialist vocabulary associated with a particular occupation or activity
Positive use- verbal shorthand
Negative use- used to address a non-specialist audience
Attitudes to Language Change
What influences attitudes?
Opinion of person
the individual sounds of words
e.g. 1 morpheme= Dog 4 morphemes= un+help+ful+ness
Free Morphemes- can stand alone e.g. boy, cake
Bound morphemes- cannot stand alone e.g. un, sub
Prefixes- before the word
Suffixes- after the word
Inflectional affixes- Change the grammatical feature e.g. dog+s= dogs
Possessive affix- Daniel's exam
Present tense into third person- Drives (she drives)