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In the Beginning....
· In 1863 Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation. This granted
freedom to slaves in the south and was a political and military
tactic to stop the civil war. Free Slaves were able to get married,
worship, travel and own property. They still couldn't integrate
with whites and they did not have equal opportunities though.
This was a big change to the Southern way of life (where Slavery
was greatest) and it was more theoretical than realistic. Most
slaves decided to stay anyway as they didn't know any thing
different or have the skills.
· All slaves were formally freed with the 13th amendment, just days
before the civil war ended in 1865.
· The 14th Amendment in 1868 gave all free slaves civil rights and
equal opportunities.
· The 15th Amendment forbade the right to deny any man the vote
in basis of colour 1870…read more

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Freedman's Bureau
· They wanted to support freed slaves.
· March 1965
· It was a supported black self-help group and it did
· 1865 ­ 77
· Southern societies
· Imposing wishes regarding African Americans on white
· However, who should control is?? Radical Republicans wanted too
much too fast…read more

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· Lincoln ­ Emancipation Proclamation
· Johnson (1965) ­ focused more on N/S union (pro slavery solution)
· Harding ­ no intervention/believed south new best
· Coolidge ­ more positive bust did nothing
· Hoover ­ no friend to Black Civil Rights
· Roosevelt 1932 ­ felt unable to act positively (wife supported it). New
deal. More wages.
· JFK ­ friendly "new frontier"
· Johnson ­ "great society we are going to build" two acts in JFK name.
· Carter ­ didn't do much
· Nixon ­ Power back to south to gain support, civil rights less say, some
`racist' ideas, bit very helpful but little evidence on holding back.
· Ford ­ better relations with civil rights leaders
· Bush ­ seemed liberal, less keen on `artificial' civil rights…read more

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Civil Rights Act 1964
· Banned exclusion from public places
· Speed up legal process
· Racial discrimination made illegal
Voting Rights Act 1965
Following precondition voting made illegal:
· Discrimination to educational ability
· Knowledge of any subject
· Ability to interpret material
· Proof of moral character
· Blacks able to register to vote on equal terms with whites.…read more

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Brown Case 1954 Little Rock 1957
· NAACP involvement · Federal court orders schools
· Supreme Court victory to disintergrate
(against constitution) · Governor of Arkansas refuses
· Legal precedent/set example and uses national gaurd to
· Others followed suit prevent Black Students
· 1957 12% schools no longer
segregated · Eisenhower intervenes
(paratroopers/ federal troops)
· Southern states resisted. to protect students.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
· Rosa Parks refuses to give up seat for white person
· People stopped using busses
· Blacks respond to call
· MLK go involved…read more

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