All A2 theory flashcards

40 pages, 200+ flashcards covering all elements of the AQA design and technology a level A2 course.

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Found in: raw meat, poultry, eggs, milk, dairy
products, fish, sauces, dressings, cream filled
desserts and toppings
Symptoms: fever, headache, vomiting,
Salmonella abdominal pain, diarrhoea
Onset time: 648 hours
Duration of illness: 18 days
Destroyed: by heat
Found in: pasteurised milk, raw milk, cheese,
soft ice cream, raw veg, raw meat, raw
poultry, cooked poultry, raw fish, smoked fish
Symptoms: starts like flu, nausea, vomiting,
Listeria diarrhoea, abortion, still birth, meningitis,
Onset time: 179 days
During of illness: unknown
Destroyed: killed 91oC+
Found in: meat, meat products, poultry,
salads, potatoes, cream pastries, dairy
Symptoms: vomiting, abdominal pain,
Staphylococcus aureus diarrhoea
Onset time: 17 hours
Duration of illness: 624 hours
Destroyed: boiling food for 30minutes
Found in: sewage, soft cheese, minced beef,
Symptoms: diarrhoea, abdominal pain,
Escherichia coli (Ecoli) nausea
Onset time: 1224 hours
Duration of illness: 15 days
Destroyed: heating 55oC+
Found in: meat, poultry, raw milk, untreated
water, chickens
Symptoms: diarrhoea, flu like symptoms,
headache, fever, abdominal pain
Campylobacter Onset time: 25 days, can take 11 hours to
Duration of illness: 710 days
Destroyed: killed 60oC+
Found in: rice, cereal products, starchy foods
Symptoms: abdominal pain, vomiting,
Bacillus cereus Onset time: 17hours
Duration: less than 24 hours
Destroyed: heating above 126oC for 90
Found in: foods not heated before eating,
Clostridium botulinum low acid foods, under sterilized foods

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Symptoms: difficulties in talking, breathing,
swallowing, double vision, headaches,
nausea, vomiting, paralysis of cranial nerves
Onset time: 822 hours
Duration: months can lead to death
Destroyed: hard to do so, boiling can do for 4
Found in: meat, meat products, gravy
Symptoms: abdominal pain, diarrhoea
Onset time: 822 hours
Clostridium perfringens Duration: 1224 days
Destroyed by: steaming and stewing for 4
Factors affecting bacteria Food
growth temperature
High: shell fish, meat, poultry, fish, eggs,
cheese,…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
High temperature
Rapidly heating liquid to 72°C for 15 seconds,
Pasteurisation then rapidly cooled to 10°C
Kills bacteria
e.g. milk
High temperature
Fruit/veg in glass bottles, water/liquid added,
Bottling heated in oven, lid on for air tight seal
e.g. seasonal fruit and veg
High temperature
130150°C for 13 seconds
UHT Nearly all microorganisms/enzymes are killed
Little change to flavour/colour of food
e.g.…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Freeze dried foods then sealed in moisture
and oxygen proof packaging to ensure
freshness until opened
When water is replaced food regains its
original fresh flavour, texture and appearance
High sugar levels, bacteria don't thrive on
Salt them
e.g. meats
Absorbs the water, bacteria need moisture to
Sugar grow
e.g. jams
Acidic pH, bacteria can't survive
Vinegar e.g. pickles
Salt, sugar or sodium nitrate added to food.…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Computer aided design
a system for:
creating, modifying and
communicating a plan for a product
calculate the nutritional value of a
product (e.g.…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Peptide link diagram
Condensation when a molecule of water is eliminated during
Polymerisation the formation of the peptide link.
Dipeptide When TWO amino acids join together
long chains of amino acids join together
A mixture of proteins used to get the essential
amino acids in vegetarians/vegans
Don't contain meat
Protein complementation e.g. scrambled egg on brown bread
beans on toast
rice and peas
rounded in shape but not necessarily
shperical.…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Coiled in a spiral fibrous protein
High biological protein
Protein which provide the 8 essential amino
HBV acids
e.g. meat, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, soya bean
Low biological value
Protein which doesn't give the 8 essential
LBV amino acids
e.g. peas, beans, lentils, nuts, grains
the sequence of amino acids in the protein
chain. The amino acid and carboxly groups
take part in a condensation reaction to form a
Primary structure peptide bond.…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Coagulation involves the denaturation of
protein: changing from a soluble to an
insoluble structure
e.g. When eggs are heated, the proteins in
the white and yolk coagulate. Egg white
proteins coagulate first at about 60oC and the
white becomes opaque and forms a gel. The
Coagulation in protein yolk proteins coagulate at 66oC and the yolk
As a result, of denaturation, the properties of
proteins alter: they become less soluble and
more viscous.…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
(irreversible), (when heated/cooked), such as
in the whisking of egg white. The
protein molecules unfold and form a
reinforcing network around the air bubbles,
thus stabilising the foam. Food products such
as meringues and soufflés are
examples of this effect.
Mechanical pounding, cutting up meat,
mincing helps to break up longer
muscle fibres.
Lean meat is the flesh of the animal ­ it is
composed of microscopic fibres which are
made up of watery cells.…read more

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A2 Food technology flashcards
Animals such as cows, sheep and pigs tend
to live a reasonably long period of time before
being slaughtered and as a result of their
lifestyle, their muscles and connective tissues
become developed and stronger (tougher) as
they get older.
The older the animal, the longer and thicker
the muscle fibres. Parts of the animal which
are used a lot, such as the legs and neck
develop thick, long fibres. The more
connective tissue present, the tougher the
meat.…read more


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