Edexcel A2 Chemistry Revision Flashcards - Unit 4 - Aldehydes & Ketones

Revision Flashcards for Unit 4 of the Edexcel A2 Chemistry syllabus.

This set covers reactions of Aldehydes & Ketones, and contains 30 flashcards.

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Hope this helps!

Sources: Class notes & A2 Chemistry 2nd Edition by George Facer.

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What is the general formula of an Aldehyde?
RCHO (-al)
1 of 30
What is the general formula of a Ketone?
RCOR' (-one)
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What is the main type of reaction that is undergone by Aldehydes & Ketones?
Nucleophilic Addition
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What is another name for 2,4 Dinitrophenolhydrazine (DNP)?
Brady's Reagent
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What type of reaction occurs between an Aldehyde/Ketone and 2,4 DNP?
Addition-Elimination (Aldehyde/Ketone is added, water is eliminated)
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Aldehyde/Ketone + 2,4 DNP - Result
2,4 Dinitrophenolhydrazone (Yellow/Orange precipitate forms)
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Oxidation of a Ketone - Product
None - Ketones don't oxidise
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Oxidation of an Aldehyde with Potassium Dichromate (VI) and dil. Sulphuric Acid - Product
Carboxylic Acid
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Oxidation of Aldehydes with Potassium Dichromate (VI) and dil. Sulphuric Acid - Colour Change
Orange ---> Green
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Oxidation of an Aldehyde with Fehlings's Reagent - Conditions
Heat
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Oxidation of an Aldehyde with Fehling's Reagent - Colour Change/Result
Blue solution ---> Red precipitate
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Silver Mirror Test - Reagents & Conditions
Tollens Reagent (NaOH + dil. Ammonia + Silver Nitrate) + Heat
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Oxidation of an Aldehyde with Tollens Reagent - Colour Change/Result
Silver Mirror effect forms around the sides of the test tube
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Ketone + Tollens Reagent (Colour Change/Result)
No Reaction
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Iodoform Test - Reagents & Conditions
Iodine + NaOH + Heat
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Iodoform Test - Result
Pale yellow/off white precipitate formed if CH3C=O group present
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What is the formula of the Iodoform precipitate?
CH3I
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What is the first step of the Aldehyde/Ketone + HCN reaction?
The lone pair of electrons on the CN- ion form a bond with the d+ carbon atom
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What would be the product of the reaction Ethanal + HCN?
2-hydroxypropanenitrile
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What would be the product of the Propanone + HCN reaction
2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanenitrile
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At what pH does the Aldehyde/Ketone + HCN reaction occur?
8
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Why must the reaction take place in a basic solution?
So that CN- ions are produced (to attach the d+ carbon)
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In the reaction between HCN and an Aldehyde/Ketone, what happens if the pH is too low?
Not enough CN- ions for the first step to take place
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In the reaction between HCN and an Aldehyde/Ketone, what happens if the pH is too high
Not enough HCN for the second step to take place
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In the reaction between HCN and an Aldehyde/Ketone, why is the product optically active?
Attack of the CN- nucleophile can occur above or below the trigonal planar shape (50:50 chance)
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Reduction of Aldehydes/Ketones - Reagent & Conditions
Lithium Aluminium Tetrahydride (LiAlH4) in Dry Ether
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Reduction of an Aldehyde - Result
Primary Alcohol
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Reduction of a Ketone - Result
Secondary Alcohol
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Are Aldehydes and Ketones soluble?
Yes, both form hydrogen bonds with water (both get less soluble as chain length increases)
29 of 30
What is the name for a Ketone that have a Benzene ring attached to the Carbonyl group?
Aromatic Ketone
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the general formula of a Ketone?

Back

RCOR' (-one)

Card 3

Front

What is the main type of reaction that is undergone by Aldehydes & Ketones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is another name for 2,4 Dinitrophenolhydrazine (DNP)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of reaction occurs between an Aldehyde/Ketone and 2,4 DNP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Alex

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17) answer to Iodoform Precipitate formula - CHI3 (triiodomethane). Not CH3I (Iodomethane) as suggested.

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