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SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
AO1 AO2 AO3
· PROPOSES AGGRESSION IS LEARNT THROUGH DIRECT · BANDURA BOBO DOLLS ­ · CULTURE OF VIOLENCE ­
REINFORCEMENT OR VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE ­ BANDURA COMPLETED RESEARCH SUPPORTING THE S.L.T. HE ALLOWED THE CULTURE OF VIOLENCE THEORY SUGGESTS SOME
OBSERVING OTHERS AND LEARNING FROM THEIR CHILDREN TO WATCH AN ADULT MODEL BEING AGGRESSIVE, THEN CULTURES PROMOTE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOURS, WHILE
EXPERIENCE. EITHER BEING REWARDED OR PUNISHED. THOSE WHO SAW THE OTHERS DISPROVE OF AGGRESSION. THIS PRODUCES
· FOR SOCIAL LEARNING TO TAKE PLACE, THERE MUST MODEL BEING REWARDED WERE MORE LIKELY TO REPEAT THE INDIVIDUALS WITH LOW AND HIGH LEVELS OF
BE A TEACHING EFFECT (WHERE THE CHILD ACQUIRES BEHAVIOUR. THIS DEMONSTRATES THE PRESENCE OF A TEACHING AND AGGRESSION, DEPENDING ON CULTURE. THIS SUGGESTS
THE BEHAVIOUR BEING EXHIBITED) AND A MOTIVATING EFFECT, SUPPORTING THE S.L.T. AGGRESSION IS A LEARNT AND REINFORCED BEHAVIOUR
MOTIVATING EFFECT (WHICH MAKES THE IN MAY CULTURES, BUT THE REINFORCEMENT CAN BE
REPRODUCTION MORE/LESS LIKELY). · IMPORTANCE OF VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT (FERRACUTI AND POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE. THIS SUPPORTS THE IDEA
· FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR TO BE TAKEN ON, THE WOLFGANG) ­ AGGRESSION IS LEARNED, BUT ITS CONSEQUENCES VARY
BEHAVIOUR HAS TO BE SEEN TO BE REWARDED, THIS THE S.L.T. EXPLAINS HOW AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR CAN BE LEARNT DESPITE ACCORDING TO CULTURE.
REINFORCES THE NOTION THAT THE BEHAVIOUR IS THE ABSENCE OF DIRECT REINFORCEMENT. ALTHOUGH THE CHILDREN
ACCEPTABLE. IN BANDURA'S STUDY BEHAVED WITH INCREASED AGGRESSION AFTER · FREE WILL Vs DETERMINISM ­
WATCHING THE MODEL, AT NO POINT WERE THEY DIRECTLY THE EXPECTATION OF REWARD OR PUNISHMENT FOR
REINFORCED FOR THEIR BEHAVIOUR. THIS SUPPORTS THE CONCEPT OF AGGRESSION MAY SUGGEST AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR IS A
VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT, THAT CHILDREN CAN ACQUIRE PRODUCT OF FREE WILL. HOWEVER S.L.T. STATES THAT
BEHAVIOURS THEY SEE IN OTHERS. AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR IS THE PRODUCT OF LEARNING
EXPERIENCES THAT HAVE BEEN EXPERIENCED PRIOR TO
ANY PRODUCTION OF AGGRESSION. THEREFORE S.L.T.
EXPLANATIONS TEND TO FALL ON THE DETERMINIST SIDE.
THIS SUGGESTS AGGRESSION IS CAUSED BY DETERMINISTIC
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, RATHER THAN FREE WILL.…read more

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SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS
DEINDIVIDUATION
AO1 AO2 AO3
· DEINDIVIDUATION OCCURS WHEN PEOPLE LOSE THEIR · WAR PAINT (WATSON) ­ · GENDER DIFFERENCE (CANNAVALE) ­
SENSE OF SOCIALIZED, INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY AND WATSON TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT WARRIORS WHO RESEARCH HAS CONCLUDED A GENDER DIFFERENCE WHEN UNDER
PARTICIPATE IN UNSOCIALIZED BEHAVIOURS CHANGED THEIR APPEARANCE (ENTER A DEINDIVIDUATED DEINDIVIDUATED CONDITIONS. CANNAVALE FOUND MEN AND
· THIS BEHAVIOUR IS BASED ON PRIMITIVE URGES AND STATE) WERE MORE LIKELY TO BE BRUTAL TOWARDS THEIR WOMEN RESPOND DIFFERENTLY UNDER ANONYMITY (IN A
DOES NOT CONFORM TO SOCIAL NORMS VICTIMS. OUT OF 13 SOCIETIES THAT EXHIBITED HIGH DEINDIVIDUATED STATE). AN INCREASE IN AGGRESSION WAS ONLY
· DEINDIVIDUATION RESULTS IN A REDUCED PUBLIC SELF AGGRESSION TOWARDS THEIR VICTIMS, 12 CHANGED THEIR FOUND IN MALE GROUPS, NOT IN FEMALE GROUPS. THIS
AWARENESS (BEING ANONYMOUS TO OTHERS) AND A APPEARANCE. THIS CAN BE LINKED TO A LOSS OF IDENTITY AND HIGHLIGHTS A GENDER DIFFERENCE TO WHICH IS NOT
REDUCED PRIVATE SELF AWARENESS (FOCUSING LESS ON REDUCED SELF AWARENESS, THIS SUPPORTS THE THEORY OF ACCOUNTED FOR IN THE EXPLANATION OF AGGRESSION.
PERSONAL STANDARDS DEINDIVIDUATION AS IT PROVIDES REAL LIFE INSIGHT.
· PRIVATE SELF AWARENESS IS LOST WHEN · REAL LIFE APPLICATION (SILKE) ­
DEINDIVIDUATED. · BAITING CROWDS (MANN) ­ SILKE EXAMINED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANONYMITY AND
MANN USED THE IDEA OF DEINDIVIDUATION TO EXPLAIN THE ANTI AGGRESSION IN NORTHERN IRELAND OVER 30 MONTHS. OF 500
SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF MOBS. HE ANALYSED 21 SUICIDE JUMPS VIOLENT ATTACKS, 206 WERE CARRIED OUT BY ANONYMOUS
AND FOUND 10 WERE BAITED BY A LARGE CROWD. THE BAITING INDIVIDUALS. THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT POSITIVE CORRELATION
TENDED TO OCCUR AT NIGHT, WITH A DISTANCE BETWEEN BETWEEN THE USE OF DISGUISES AND DIFFERENT MEASURES OF
JUMPER AND CROWD. THUS PRODUCING A STATE OF AGGRESSION. DISGUISED OFFENDERS WERE MORE LIKELY TO
ANONYMITY. THIS STUDY SUPPORTS THE IDEA OF REDUCED INFLICT SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURY. THIS PROVIDES A REAL LIFE
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SELF AWARENESS AS CAUSAL IN APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF DEINDIVIDUATION, IN THAT
INCREASED LEVELS OF AGGRESSION. WE ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE AGGRESSIVE WHEN WE ARE
ANONYMOUS AND THEREFORE DEINDIVIDUATED.…read more

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SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS
INSTITUTIONAL AGGRESSION
AO1 AO2 AO3
· VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR THAT EXISTS WITHIN, AND MAY BE A · RESEARCH SUPPORT (IMPORTATION ­ HARER AND STEFFENSMEIER) · ETHNIC DIFFERENCES (GAES) ­
DEFINING FEATURE, OF CERTAIN INSTITUTIONS AND GROUPS. ANALYSED DATA FROM 58 US PRISONS AND FOUND BLACK INMATES CONDUCTED A STUDY OF INMATE VIOLENCE USING ALL MALE
· IT CAN ALSO REFER TO OTHER FORMS OF COLLECTIVE DISPLAYED HIGHER VIOLENCE LEVELS, BUT LOWER RATES OF US INMATES. IT WAS FOUND THAT HISPANICS WERE MORE
VIOLENCE BETWEEN SOCIAL GROUPS. ALCOHOL AND DRUG MISCONDUCT COMPARED TO WHITE VIOLENT THAN NON-HISPANICS. INMATES OF ASIAN
· INSTITUTIONAL AGGRESSION CAN BE SPLIT INTO TWO FORMS; INMATES, THEY CONCLUDED THAT THESE DIFFERENCES REFLECTED DESCENT WERE LESS LIKELY TO ENGAGE IN SERIOUS
RADICAL DIFFERENCES IN US SOCIETY. THIS SUPPORTS THE VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR. THIS, ETHNICITY APPEARS TO BE AN
IMPORTATION MODEL ­ THIS MODEL CLAIMS THAT SOME PEOPLE IMPORTATION MODEL, AND IT SUGGESTS VIOLENT INDICATOR OF PRISONER VIOLENCE, SUPPORTING THE
WHO ENTER PRISON DO SO ALREADY POSSESSING CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS ARE IMPORTED INTO PRISONS. IMPORTATION MODEL.
CHARACTERISTICS (E.G. VALUES, ATTITUDES) THAT
PREDISPOSE THEM TOWARD INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE · LIMITATIONS (IMPORTATION ­ DeLISI) ­ · REAL LIFE IMPLICATIONS (WILSON) ­
WITHIN PRISON. INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE IS NOT A THE IMPORTATION MODEL PREDICTS THAT MEMBERSHIP OF A WILSON ARGUES THAT MOST VIOLENCE OCCURS IN
PRODUCT OF THE INSTITUTION ITSELF, BUT RATHER OF THE VIOLENT GANG PRIOR TO IMPRISONMENT WOULD RESULT IN ENVIRONMENTS THAT ARE HOT, NOISE-POLLUTED AND
CHARACTERISTICS OF THOSE VIOLENT INDIVIDUALS WHO INCREASED LEVELS OF VIOLENCE IN PRISON. HOWEVER DeLISI OVERCROWDED ­ SITUATIONS WHERE CONDITIONS
ENTER SUCH INSTITUTIONS. STUDIES OVER 800 MALE INMATES AND FOUND NO EVIDENCE OF A CONTRIBUTE TO THE `DEPRIVATION' OF PRISON LIFE. BY
LINK BETWEEN VIOLENT GANG MEMBERSHIP AND LEVELS OF CHANGING THE LEVELS OF NOISE, HEAT AND CROWDING,
DEPRIVATION MODEL - THIS MODEL CLAIMS THAT IT IS THE VIOLENCE WITHIN PRISON. THERE WAS A DRAMATIC DECREASE IN VIOLENT
CHARACTERISTIC OF THE PRISON ITSELF RATHER THAN THE BEHAVIOUR. THIS SUPPORTS THE DEPRIVATION MODEL AS
PRISON POPULATION THAT ACCOUNTS FOR VIOLENCE IN · RESEARCH SUPPORT (DEPRIVATION ­ McCORKLE) ­ IT CAN BE SEEN THAT SITUATIONAL CHANGES THAT LED TO
PRISONS. IT IS THE EXPERIENCE OF IMPRISONMENT THAT THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE DEPRIVATION MODEL ARE SUPPORTED BY A CHANGE IN THEIR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR.
CAUSES EXTREME STRESS AND FRUSTRATION FOR INMATES McCORKLE WHO FOUND THAT OVERCROWDING, LACK OF PRIVACY
AND THIS, IN TURN, LEADS TO VIOLENCE AGAINST OTHERS. AND A LACK OF MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY ALL SIGNIFICANTLY
INFLUENCED VIOLENCE IN PRISONS.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
NEURAL MECHANISMS
AO1 AO2 AO3
SEROTONIN · MANN ­ · GENDER DIFFERENCES (MANN) ­
·INHIBITS BODILY RESPONSES TO EMOTIONAL STIMULI. SUPPORTS THE NOTION THAT DECREASED DOPAMINE = INCREASED MANN HIGHLIGHTED GENDER DIFFERENCES IN AGGRESSION.
REDUCED SEROTONIN = INCREASED REACTION TO EMOTIONAL AGGRESSION. WHEN MEN WERE GIVEN A DRUG PREVENTING WHEN GIVEN A DRUG PREVENTING SEROTONIN
STIMULI (AGGRESSION DISPLAYED TO YOU, YOU WILL BE SEROTONIN PRODUCTION, HIGHER LEVELS OF AGGRESSION WERE PRODUCTION, MEN BECAME AGGRESSIVE WHEREAS
AGGRESSIVE BACK) EXHIBITED. THIS SUPPORTS THE IDEA THAT DECREASED SEROTONIN = FEMALES DID NOT. THIS SUGGESTS LEVELS OF SEROTONIN
·DECREASED SEROTONIN = INCREASED AGGRESSION HIGHER AGGRESSION. AFFECT LEVELS OF AGGRESSION DIFFERENTLY IN MEN AND
·SEROTONIN IS A NEUROTRANSMITTER. NEUROTRANSMITTERS WOMEN. THIS IS A CRITICISM OF MANN'S RESEARCH AS IT
ARE CHEMICALS THAT CONTROL BODILY FUNCTIONS AND ARE · BOND ­ MEANS DECREASED SEROTONIN IS NOT THE CAUSAL
SIGNALS FROM THE BRAIN IN RESPONSE TO STIMULI. SUPPORTS THE INVOLVEMENT OF SEROTONIN IN AGGRESSION. FACTOR FOR INCREASED AGGRESSION IN BOTH SEXES.
PARTICIPANTS WHO WERE GIVEN ANTI DEPRESSANTS WERE LESS
AGGRESSIVE. THIS CAN BE SEEN TO BE DUE TO THE INCREASED · REDUCTIONISM ­
AVAILABILITY OF SEROTONIN. THIS SUPPORTS THE NEURAL THE LINK BETWEEN NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND AGGRESSION
DOPAMINE EXPLANATION AS IT PROVIDES INSIGHT INTO SEROTONIN LEVELS IGNORES SOCIAL FACTORS. BANDURA HAS SHOWN THAT
·INCREASED DOPAMINE = INCREASED AGGRESSION AFFECTING AGGRESSION. SOCIAL LEARNING CAN HAVE INFLUENCE ON AGGRESSIVE
·DOPAMINE IS A NEUROTRANSMITTER WHICH PLAYS A MAJOR BEHAVIOUR, IN PARTICULAR IN CHILDREN. THIS SHOWS
ROLE IN MOTIVATION AND REWARDS FOR ACTIONS · FERRARI ­ THAT THE BIOLOGICAL APPROACH IS REDUCTIONIST, AS IT
·THE LINK BETWEEN DOPAMINE AND AGGRESSION IS FERRARI SUPPORTS THE IDEA THAT INCREASED DOPAMINE AND DOES NOT CONSIDER SOCIAL FACTORS AS THE REASON FOR
UNCLEAR. IT IS THOUGHT THAT INCREASED LEVELS OF DECREASED SEROTONIN = AGGRESSION. HE FORCED RATS TO FIGHT AGGRESSION, BUT INSTEAD FOCUSES SOLELY ON LEVELS OF
DOPAMINE ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF AGGRESSION, RATHER FOR 10 DAYS. ON THE 11TH DAY DOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN LEVELS NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
THAN THE CAUSE. WERE MEASURED. ON THE 11TH DAY RATS WERE AGGRESSIVE DUE TO
INCREASED LEVELS OF DOPAMINE AND DECREASED SEROTONIN. THIS
SUPPORTS THE IDEA INCREASED DOPAMINE AND DECREASED
SEROTONIN = AGGRESSION.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
HORMONAL MECHANISMS
AO1 AO2 AO3
TESTOSTERONE · EDWARDS ­ · GENDER BIAS ­
·HIGH TESTOSTERONE = HIGH AGGRESSION CASTRATED MALE ANIMALS AND AS CONSEQUENCE THEIR MOST OF THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
·TESTOSTERONE IS A HORMONE. HORMONES ARE TESTOSTERONE LEVELS DECREASED, AS DID INSTANCES FO TESTOSTERONE AND AGGRESSION IS BASED ON MALE STUDIES.
CHEMICALS THAT TRAVEL THROUGH THE BLOOD SYSTEM AGGRESSION. ONCE INJECTED WITH TESTOSTERONE AGGRESSION CURRENTLY THERE IS LITTLE RESEARCH LINKING LEVELS OF
FROM THE BRAIN TO OTHER AREAS OF THE BODY, PASSING LEVELS ROSE. SUPPORTS HORMONAL EXPLANATION AS SUGGESTS A TESTOSTERONE AND AGGRESSION IN FEMALES. THIS MEANS WE
MESSAGES. LINK BETWEEN RAISED TESTOSTERONE AND RAISED AGGRESSION. CANNOT GENERALISE THE FINDINGS OF STUDIES FORMATTED IN
·KNOWN AS AN ANDROGEN HORMONE AS IT HAS MALE THIS WAY AS IT MAY NOT BE TRUE TO WOMEN.
CHARACTERISTICS. · ARCHER/ BOOK ­
·THIS HORMONE IS COMMONLY LINKED TO MALE A WEAK CORRELATION LINK HAS BEEN FOUND BY MANY · REAL WORLD APPLICATION (KLINESMITH) ­
AGGRESSION PSYCHOLOGISTS. ARCHER AND BOOK BOTH FOUND POSITIVE THE LINK BETWEEN TESTOSTERONE AND AGGRESSION HAS BEEN
·RESEARCH HAS ESTABLISHED A WEAK CORRELATION CORRELATIONS WHEN LOOKING AT INCREASED TESTOSTERONE USED TO INFORM THE ARGUMENT THAT THE PRESENCE OF
BETWEEN INCREASED TESTOSTERONE AND INCREASED RESULTING IN INCREASED AGGRESSION. THE CORRELATION GUNS IN THE ENVIRONMENT INCREASE INSTANCES OF
AGGRESSION SUGGESTS THAT THERE IS A LINK BETWEEN INCREASED AGGRESSION. THE PRESENCE OF CERTAIN STIMULI, SUCH AS
TESTOSTERONE AND INCREASED AGGRESSION. GUNS OR KNIVES TRIGGER INCREASES IN TESTOSTERONE,
CORTISOL WHICH IN TURN MAY LEAD TO INCREASES IN AGGRESSIVE
·LOW CORTISOL = INCREASED AGGRESSION · GERRA ­ BEHAVIOUR. KLINESMITH ALLOWED MALE STUDENTS TO
·CORTISOL IS A HORMONE. HORMONES ARE CHEMICALS TESTED THE LEVELS OF CORTISOL IN MALES WHEN AGGRESSION WAS HANDLE A GUN OR CHILD'S TOY FOR 15 MINUTES. STUDENTS
THAT TRAVEL THROUGH THE BLOOD SYSTEM FROM THE INDUCED. HIGH LEVELS OF CORTISOL WAS RECORDED. THIS CRITICISES WHO HAD HANDLED THE GUN HAD SIGNIFICANT INCREASES IN
BRAIN TO OTHER AREAS OF THE BODY, PASSING MESSAGES. THE HORMONAL EXPLANATION FOR AGGRESSION IN REGARDS TO TESTOSTERONE.
·IT IS PRODUCED IN THE ADRENAL GLAND AS A RESPONSE CORTISOL, AS HIGH LEVELS OF CORTISOL WERE FOUND BUT THERE
TO STRESS WAS INCREASED SIGNS OF AGGRESSION. THIS GOES AGAINST THE
·WHEN RELEASED, IT INHIBITS THE EFFECTS OF THEORY THAT LOW LEVELS OF CORTISOL EQUATE TO INCREASED
TESTOSTERONE AGGRESSION.…read more

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